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As of [update] the AHA stated categorically that it doesn't recommend high-protein diets. Some of these diets restrict healthful foods that provide essential nutrients and don't provide the variety of foods needed to adequately meet nutritional needs. People who stay on these diets very long may not get enough vitamins and minerals and face other potential health risks. Eckel , past president, noted that a low-carbohydrate diet could potentially meet AHA guidelines if it conformed to the AHA guidelines for low fat content.
The position statement by the Heart Foundation regarding low-carbohydrate diets states: Low-carbohydrate diets became a major weight loss and health maintenance trend during the late s and early s. Because of the substantial controversy regarding low-carbohydrate diets, and even disagreements in interpreting the results of specific studies, it is difficult to objectively summarize the research in a way that reflects scientific consensus.
Although there has been some research done throughout the twentieth century, most directly relevant scientific studies have occurred in the s and early s and, as such, are relatively new and the results are still debated in the medical community.
A systematic review studying the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet LCD on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors showed that the diet that was studied was associated with significant decreases in body weight, body mass index , abdominal circumference, blood pressure , triglycerides , fasting blood sugar , blood insulin and plasma C-reactive protein , as well as an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL.
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and creatinine did not change significantly. The study found the LCD was shown to have favorable effects on body weight and major cardiovascular risk factors but concluded the effects on long-term health are unknown. The study did not compare health benefits of LCD to low-fat diets. A meta-analysis published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in compared low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, vegan, vegetarian, low-glycemic index, high-fiber, and high-protein diets with control diets.
The researchers concluded that low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, low-glycemic index, and high-protein diets are effective in improving markers of risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
Advocates of low-carbohydrate diets generally dispute any suggestion that such diets cause weakness or exhaustion except in the first few weeks as the body adjusts , and indeed most highly recommend exercise as part of a healthy lifestyle. Some critics imply or explicitly argue that vegetables and fruits are inherently all heavily concentrated sources of carbohydrates so much so that some sources treat the words 'vegetable' and 'carbohydrate' as synonymous.
Thus, in absolute terms, even sweet fruits and berries do not represent a significant source of carbohydrates in their natural form, and also typically contain a good deal of fiber which attenuates the absorption of sugar in the gut.
Most vegetables are low- or moderate-carbohydrate foods in the context of these diets, fiber is excluded because it is not a nutritive carbohydrate. Some vegetables, such as potatoes , have high concentrations of starch, as do maize and rice. Most low-carbohydrate diet plans accommodate vegetables such as broccoli , spinach , cauliflower , and peppers. Nevertheless, debate remains as to whether restricting even just high-carbohydrate fruits, vegetables, and grains is truly healthy.
Contrary to the recommendations of most low-carbohydrate diet guides, some individuals may choose to avoid vegetables altogether to minimize carbohydrate intake.
Low-carbohydrate vegetarianism is also practiced. Raw fruits and vegetables are packed with an array of other protective chemicals, such as vitamins, flavonoids , and sugar alcohols. Some of those molecules help safeguard against the over-absorption of sugars in the human digestive system. Some evidence indicates the increasingly large percentage of calories consumed as refined carbohydrates is positively correlated with the increased incidence of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes.
Some evidence indicates the human brain — the largest consumer of glucose in the body — can operate more efficiently on ketone bodies. In , the Canadian government ruled that foods sold in Canada could not be marketed with reduced or eliminated carbohydrate content as a selling point, because reduced carbohydrate content was not determined to be a health benefit.
The government ruled that existing "low carb" and "no carb" packaging would have to be phased out by In , John Rollo reported on the results of treating two diabetic Army officers with a low-carbohydrate diet and medications. A very low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet was the standard treatment for diabetes throughout the nineteenth century. In , William Banting , a formerly obese English undertaker and coffin maker, published "Letter on Corpulence Addressed to the Public", in which he described a diet for weight control giving up bread , butter , milk , sugar , beer , and potatoes.
In the early s Frederick Madison Allen developed a highly restrictive short term regime which was described by Walter R. The process was halted if sugar appeared in the person's urine. In , Richard Mackarness M. Mackarness also challenged the "calorie theory" and referenced primitive diets such as the Inuit as examples of healthy diets with a low-carbohydrate and high-fat composition.
The "Stillman diet" is a high-protein , low-carbohydrate, and low-fat diet. It is regarded as one of the first low-carbohydrate diets to become popular in the United States. In , Robert Atkins published Dr. Atkins Diet Revolution , which advocated the low-carbohydrate diet he had successfully used in treating patients in the s having developed the diet from a article published in JAMA. The concept of the glycemic index was developed in by David Jenkins to account for variances in speed of digestion of different types of carbohydrates.
In the s, Atkins published an update from his book, Dr. Atkins New Diet Revolution , and other doctors began to publish books based on the same principles. This has been said to be the beginning of what the mass media call the "low carb craze" in the United States. In the United States, the diet has continued to garner attention in the medical and nutritional science communities, and also has inspired a number of hybrid diets that include traditional calorie-counting and exercise regimens.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 12 September Not to be confused with slow carb diet. This article is about low-carbohydrate diets as a lifestyle choice or for weight loss. For low-carbohydrate dietary therapy for epilepsy, see Ketogenic diet. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.
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August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Bernstein Cyclic ketogenic diet Richard D. The New England Journal of Medicine. British Journal of Sports Medicine. National Academy of Medicine. Archived from the original PDF on 19 October Retrieved 31 August The National Academies Press. Page Archived 12 September at the Wayback Machine..
Archived from the original PDF on 4 April Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight". Nutrition Concepts and Controversies 11th ed. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. The British Journal of Nutrition. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. Far from faddish, diets based on carbohydrate restriction have been the historical treatment for diabetes and are still supported by basic biochemistry, and it is argued that they should be considered the "default" diet, the one to try first, in diseases of carbohydrate intolerance or insulin resistance.