Nutrisystem

Nutrisystem Comparisons

Department of Kinesiology, Health, and Nutrition
Practice in the techniques of individual physical activities. This means, I only needed to use Nutrisystem for 1 month, and then switched to their Turbo Shakes for my second month, along with a healthy diet and exercise plan. Hi Krystal — thanks for visiting the site, and taking the time to read my review and watch the videos. Hi Erin — Thanks so much for the positive feedback. I joined the plan and Nutrisystem sent me dieting tools, instructions on how to use the plan and great tasting foods. I am feeling healthier every day.

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Ovens were used, but they were expensive to construct and only existed in fairly large households and bakeries. It was common for a community to have shared ownership of an oven to ensure that the bread baking essential to everyone was made communal rather than private. There were also portable ovens designed to be filled with food and then buried in hot coals, and even larger ones on wheels that were used to sell pies in the streets of medieval towns.

But for most people, almost all cooking was done in simple stewpots, since this was the most efficient use of firewood and did not waste precious cooking juices, making potages and stews the most common dishes. This was considered less of a problem in a time of back-breaking toil, famine, and a greater acceptance—even desirability—of plumpness; only the poor or sick, and devout ascetics , were thin. Fruit was readily combined with meat, fish and eggs. The recipe for Tart de brymlent , a fish pie from the recipe collection Forme of Cury , includes a mix of figs , raisins , apples and pears with fish salmon , codling or haddock and pitted damson plums under the top crust.

This meant that food had to be "tempered" according to its nature by an appropriate combination of preparation and mixing certain ingredients, condiments and spices; fish was seen as being cold and moist, and best cooked in a way that heated and dried it, such as frying or oven baking, and seasoned with hot and dry spices; beef was dry and hot and should therefore be boiled ; pork was hot and moist and should therefore always be roasted.

In a recipe for quince pie, cabbage is said to work equally well, and in another turnips could be replaced by pears. The completely edible shortcrust pie did not appear in recipes until the 15th century.

Before that the pastry was primarily used as a cooking container in a technique known as ' huff paste '. Extant recipe collections show that gastronomy in the Late Middle Ages developed significantly.

New techniques, like the shortcrust pie and the clarification of jelly with egg whites began to appear in recipes in the late 14th century and recipes began to include detailed instructions instead of being mere memory aids to an already skilled cook.

In most households, cooking was done on an open hearth in the middle of the main living area, to make efficient use of the heat. This was the most common arrangement, even in wealthy households, for most of the Middle Ages, where the kitchen was combined with the dining hall.

Towards the Late Middle Ages a separate kitchen area began to evolve. The first step was to move the fireplaces towards the walls of the main hall, and later to build a separate building or wing that contained a dedicated kitchen area, often separated from the main building by a covered arcade.

This way, the smoke, odors and bustle of the kitchen could be kept out of sight of guests, and the fire risk lessened. Many basic variations of cooking utensils available today, such as frying pans , pots , kettles , and waffle irons , already existed, although they were often too expensive for poorer households. Other tools more specific to cooking over an open fire were spits of various sizes, and material for skewering anything from delicate quails to whole oxen.

Utensils were often held directly over the fire or placed into embers on tripods. To assist the cook there were also assorted knives, stirring spoons, ladles and graters. In wealthy households one of the most common tools was the mortar and sieve cloth, since many medieval recipes called for food to be finely chopped, mashed, strained and seasoned either before or after cooking. This was based on a belief among physicians that the finer the consistency of food, the more effectively the body would absorb the nourishment.

It also gave skilled cooks the opportunity to elaborately shape the results. Fine-textured food was also associated with wealth; for example, finely milled flour was expensive, while the bread of commoners was typically brown and coarse.

A typical procedure was farcing from the Latin farcio , "to cram" , to skin and dress an animal, grind up the meat and mix it with spices and other ingredients and then return it into its own skin, or mold it into the shape of a completely different animal. The kitchen staff of huge noble or royal courts occasionally numbered in the hundreds: While an average peasant household often made do with firewood collected from the surrounding woodlands, the major kitchens of households had to cope with the logistics of daily providing at least two meals for several hundred people.

Guidelines on how to prepare for a two-day banquet can be found in the cookbook Du fait de cuisine "On cookery" written in in part to compete with the court of Burgundy [44] by Maistre Chiquart, master chef of Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy. Food preservation methods were basically the same as had been used since antiquity, and did not change much until the invention of canning in the early 19th century.

The most common and simplest method was to expose foodstuffs to heat or wind to remove moisture , thereby prolonging the durability if not the flavor of almost any type of food from cereals to meats; the drying of food worked by drastically reducing the activity of various water-dependent microorganisms that cause decay.

In warm climates this was mostly achieved by leaving food out in the sun, and in the cooler northern climates by exposure to strong winds especially common for the preparation of stockfish , or in warm ovens, cellars, attics, and at times even in living quarters.

Subjecting food to a number of chemical processes such as smoking , salting , brining , conserving or fermenting also made it keep longer. Most of these methods had the advantage of shorter preparation times and of introducing new flavors.

Smoking or salting meat of livestock butchered in autumn was a common household strategy to avoid having to feed more animals than necessary during the lean winter months. Vegetables, eggs or fish were also often pickled in tightly packed jars, containing brine and acidic liquids lemon juice , verjuice or vinegar. Another method was to seal the food by cooking it in sugar or honey or fat, in which it was then stored.

Microbial modification was also encouraged, however, by a number of methods; grains, fruit and grapes were turned into alcoholic drinks thus killing any pathogens, and milk was fermented and curdled into a multitude of cheeses or buttermilk. The majority of the European population before industrialization lived in rural communities or isolated farms and households. The norm was self-sufficiency with only a small percentage of production being exported or sold in markets.

Large towns were exceptions and required their surrounding hinterlands to support them with food and fuel. The dense urban population could support a wide variety of food establishments that catered to various social groups. Many of the poor city dwellers had to live in cramped conditions without access to a kitchen or even a hearth, and many did not own the equipment for basic cooking.

Food from vendors was in such cases the only option. Cookshops could either sell ready-made hot food, an early form of fast food , or offer cooking services while the customers supplied some or all of the ingredients. Travellers, such as pilgrims en route to a holy site, made use of professional cooks to avoid having to carry their provisions with them.

For the more affluent, there were many types of specialist that could supply various foods and condiments: Well-off citizens who had the means to cook at home could on special occasions hire professionals when their own kitchen or staff could not handle the burden of throwing a major banquet. Urban cookshops that catered to workers or the destitute were regarded as unsavory and disreputable places by the well-to-do and professional cooks tended to have a bad reputation.

Geoffrey Chaucer 's Hodge of Ware, the London cook from the Canterbury Tales , is described as a sleazy purveyor of unpalatable food.

French cardinal Jacques de Vitry 's sermons from the early 13th century describe sellers of cooked meat as an outright health hazard. The stereotypical cook in art and literature was male, hot-tempered, prone to drunkenness, and often depicted guarding his stewpot from being pilfered by both humans and animals. In the early 15th century, the English monk John Lydgate articulated the beliefs of many of his contemporaries by proclaiming that "Hoot ffir [fire] and smoke makith many an angry cook.

The period between c. More intense agriculture on an ever-increasing acreage resulted in a shift from animal products, like meat and dairy, to various grains and vegetables as the staple of the majority population.

A bread-based diet became gradually more common during the 15th century and replaced warm intermediate meals that were porridge- or gruel-based. Leavened bread was more common in wheat-growing regions in the south, while unleavened flatbread of barley, rye or oats remained more common in northern and highland regions, and unleavened flatbread was also common as provisions for troops. The most common grains were rye , barley , buckwheat , millet and oats. Rice remained a fairly expensive import for most of the Middle Ages and was grown in northern Italy only towards the end of the period.

Wheat was common all over Europe and was considered to be the most nutritious of all grains, but was more prestigious and thus more expensive. The finely sifted white flour that modern Europeans are most familiar with was reserved for the bread of the upper classes. As one descended the social ladder, bread became coarser, darker, and its bran content increased. In times of grain shortages or outright famine, grains could be supplemented with cheaper and less desirable substitutes like chestnuts , dried legumes , acorns , ferns , and a wide variety of more or less nutritious vegetable matter.

One of the most common constituents of a medieval meal, either as part of a banquet or as a small snack, were sops , pieces of bread with which a liquid like wine , soup , broth , or sauce could be soaked up and eaten.

Another common sight at the medieval dinner table was the frumenty , a thick wheat porridge often boiled in a meat broth and seasoned with spices. Porridges were also made of every type of grain and could be served as desserts or dishes for the sick, if boiled in milk or almond milk and sweetened with sugar. Pies filled with meats, eggs, vegetables, or fruit were common throughout Europe, as were turnovers , fritters , doughnuts , and many similar pastries.

By the Late Middle Ages biscuits cookies in the U. Grain, either as bread crumbs or flour, was also the most common thickener of soups and stews, alone or in combination with almond milk.

The importance of bread as a daily staple meant that bakers played a crucial role in any medieval community. Bread consumption was high in most of Western Europe by the 14th century. Estimates of bread consumption from different regions are fairly similar: Among the first town guilds to be organized were the bakers', and laws and regulations were passed to keep bread prices stable. The English Assize of Bread and Ale of listed extensive tables where the size, weight, and price of a loaf of bread were regulated in relation to grain prices.

The baker's profit margin stipulated in the tables was later increased through successful lobbying from the London Baker's Company by adding the cost of everything from firewood and salt to the baker's wife, house, and dog. Since bread was such a central part of the medieval diet, swindling by those who were trusted with supplying the precious commodity to the community was considered a serious offense. Bakers who were caught tampering with weights or adulterating dough with less expensive ingredients could receive severe penalties.

This gave rise to the " baker's dozen ": While grains were the primary constituent of most meals, vegetables such as cabbage , chard , onions , garlic and carrots were common foodstuffs. Many of these were eaten daily by peasants and workers and were less prestigious than meat. The cookbooks, which appeared in the late Middle Ages and were intended mostly for those who could afford such luxuries, contained only a small number of recipes using vegetables as the main ingredient.

The lack of recipes for many basic vegetable dishes, such as potages , has been interpreted not to mean that they were absent from the meals of the nobility, but rather that they were considered so basic that they did not require recording. Various legumes , like chickpeas , fava beans and field peas were also common and important sources of protein , especially among the lower classes.

With the exception of peas, legumes were often viewed with some suspicion by the dietitians advising the upper class, partly because of their tendency to cause flatulence but also because they were associated with the coarse food of peasants. The importance of vegetables to the common people is illustrated by accounts from 16th-century Germany stating that many peasants ate sauerkraut from three to four times a day.

Fruit was popular and could be served fresh, dried, or preserved, and was a common ingredient in many cooked dishes. The fruits of choice in the south were lemons , citrons , bitter oranges the sweet type was not introduced until several hundred years later , pomegranates , quinces , and, of course, grapes. Farther north, apples , pears , plums , and strawberries were more common. Figs and dates were eaten all over Europe, but remained rather expensive imports in the north. Common and often basic ingredients in many modern European cuisines like potatoes , kidney beans , cacao , vanilla , tomatoes , chili peppers and maize were not available to Europeans until after , after European contact with the Americas, and even then it often took considerable time, sometimes several centuries, for the new foodstuffs to be accepted by society at large.

Milk was an important source of animal protein for those who could not afford meat. It would mostly come from cows, but milk from goats and sheep was also common. Plain fresh milk was not consumed by adults except the poor or sick, and was usually reserved for the very young or elderly.

Poor adults would sometimes drink buttermilk or whey or milk that was soured or watered down. On occasion it was used in upper-class kitchens in stews, but it was difficult to keep fresh in bulk and almond milk was generally used in its stead. Cheese was far more important as a foodstuff, especially for common people, and it has been suggested that it was, during many periods, the chief supplier of animal protein among the lower classes. There were also whey cheeses , like ricotta , made from by-products of the production of harder cheeses.

Cheese was used in cooking for pies and soups, the latter being common fare in German-speaking areas. Butter , another important dairy product, was in popular use in the regions of Northern Europe that specialized in cattle production in the latter half of the Middle Ages, the Low Countries and Southern Scandinavia. While most other regions used oil or lard as cooking fats, butter was the dominant cooking medium in these areas. Its production also allowed for a lucrative butter export from the 12th century onward.

While all forms of wild game were popular among those who could obtain it, most meat came from domestic animals. Domestic working animals that were no longer able to work were slaughtered but not particularly appetizing and therefore were less valued as meat.

Beef was not as common as today because raising cattle was labor-intensive, requiring pastures and feed, and oxen and cows were much more valuable as draught animals and for producing milk. Mutton and lamb were fairly common, especially in areas with a sizeable wool industry, as was veal. Domestic pigs often ran freely even in towns and could be fed on just about any organic waste, and suckling pig was a sought-after delicacy.

Just about every part of the pig was eaten, including ears, snout, tail, tongue , and womb. Intestines, bladder and stomach could be used as casings for sausage or even illusion food such as giant eggs. Among the meats that today are rare or even considered inappropriate for human consumption are the hedgehog and porcupine , occasionally mentioned in late medieval recipe collections.

In England, they were deliberately introduced by the 13th century and their colonies were carefully protected. They were of particular value for monasteries, because newborn rabbits were allegedly declared fish or, at least, not-meat by the church and therefore they could be eaten during Lent.

A wide range of birds were eaten, including swans , peafowl , quail , partridge , storks , cranes , larks , linnets and other songbirds that could be trapped in nets, and just about any other wild bird that could be hunted.

Swans and peafowl were domesticated to some extent, but were only eaten by the social elite, and more praised for their fine appearance as stunning entertainment dishes, entremets , than for their meat. As today, geese and ducks had been domesticated but were not as popular as the chicken , the fowl equivalent of the pig. But at the Fourth Council of the Lateran , Pope Innocent III explicitly prohibited the eating of barnacle geese during Lent, arguing that they lived and fed like ducks and so were of the same nature as other birds.

Meats were more expensive than plant foods. Though rich in protein , the calorie -to-weight ratio of meat was less than that of plant food. Meat could be up to four times as expensive as bread. Fish was up to 16 times as costly, and was expensive even for coastal populations. This meant that fasts could mean an especially meager diet for those who could not afford alternatives to meat and animal products like milk and eggs. It was only after the Black Death had eradicated up to half of the European population that meat became more common even for poorer people.

The drastic reduction in many populated areas resulted in a labor shortage, meaning that wages dramatically increased. It also left vast areas of farmland untended, making them available for pasture and putting more meat on the market.

Although less prestigious than other animal meats, and often seen as merely an alternative to meat on fast days, seafood was the mainstay of many coastal populations.

Also included were the beaver , due to its scaly tail and considerable time spent in water, and barnacle geese , due to the belief that they developed underwater in the form of barnacles. The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II examined barnacles and noted no evidence of any bird-like embryo in them, and the secretary of Leo of Rozmital wrote a very skeptical account of his reaction to being served barnacle goose at a fish-day dinner in Especially important was the fishing and trade in herring and cod in the Atlantic and the Baltic Sea.

The herring was of unprecedented significance to the economy of much of Northern Europe, and it was one of the most common commodities traded by the Hanseatic League , a powerful north German alliance of trading guilds.

Kippers made from herring caught in the North Sea could be found in markets as far away as Constantinople. Stockfish , cod that was split down the middle, fixed to a pole and dried, was very common, though preparation could be time-consuming, and meant beating the dried fish with a mallet before soaking it in water. A wide range of mollusks including oysters , mussels and scallops were eaten by coastal and river-dwelling populations, and freshwater crayfish were seen as a desirable alternative to meat during fish days.

Compared to meat, fish was much more expensive for inland populations, especially in Central Europe, and therefore not an option for most. Freshwater fish such as pike , carp , bream , perch , lamprey and trout were common.

While in modern times, water is often drunk with a meal, in the Middle Ages, however, concerns over purity, medical recommendations and its low prestige value made it less favored, and alcoholic beverages were preferred. They were seen as more nutritious and beneficial to digestion than water, with the invaluable bonus of being less prone to putrefaction due to the alcohol content.

Wine was consumed on a daily basis in most of France and all over the Western Mediterranean wherever grapes were cultivated. Further north it remained the preferred drink of the bourgeoisie and the nobility who could afford it, and far less common among peasants and workers.

The drink of commoners in the northern parts of the continent was primarily beer or ale. Juices , as well as wines, of a multitude of fruits and berries had been known at least since Roman antiquity and were still consumed in the Middle Ages: Medieval drinks that have survived to this day include prunellé from wild plums modern-day slivovitz , mulberry gin and blackberry wine.

Many variants of mead have been found in medieval recipes, with or without alcoholic content. However, the honey -based drink became less common as a table beverage towards the end of the period and was eventually relegated to medicinal use. This is partially true since mead bore great symbolic value at important occasions. When agreeing on treaties and other important affairs of state, mead was often presented as a ceremonial gift.

It was also common at weddings and baptismal parties, though in limited quantity due to its high price. In medieval Poland , mead had a status equivalent to that of imported luxuries, such as spices and wines. Plain milk was not consumed by adults except the poor or sick, being reserved for the very young or elderly, and then usually as buttermilk or whey.

Fresh milk was overall less common than other dairy products because of the lack of technology to keep it from spoiling. However, neither of these non-alcoholic social drinks were consumed in Europe before the late 16th and early 17th century.

Wine was commonly drunk and was also regarded as the most prestigious and healthy choice. According to Galen 's dietetics it was considered hot and dry but these qualities were moderated when wine was watered down.

Unlike water or beer, which were considered cold and moist, consumption of wine in moderation especially red wine was, among other things, believed to aid digestion, generate good blood and brighten the mood. The first pressing was made into the finest and most expensive wines which were reserved for the upper classes.

The second and third pressings were subsequently of lower quality and alcohol content. Common folk usually had to settle for a cheap white or rosé from a second or even third pressing, meaning that it could be consumed in quite generous amounts without leading to heavy intoxication.

For the poorest or the most pious , watered-down vinegar similar to Ancient Roman posca would often be the only available choice.

The aging of high quality red wine required specialized knowledge as well as expensive storage and equipment, and resulted in an even more expensive end product. Judging from the advice given in many medieval documents on how to salvage wine that bore signs of going bad, preservation must have been a widespread problem.

Even if vinegar was a common ingredient, there was only so much of it that could be used. In the 14th century cookbook Le Viandier there are several methods for salvaging spoiling wine; making sure that the wine barrels are always topped up or adding a mixture of dried and boiled white grape seeds with the ash of dried and burnt lees of white wine were both effective bactericides , even if the chemical processes were not understood at the time.

Wine was believed to act as a kind of vaporizer and conduit of other foodstuffs to every part of the body, and the addition of fragrant and exotic spices would make it even more wholesome. Spiced wines were usually made by mixing an ordinary red wine with an assortment of spices such as ginger , cardamom , pepper , grains of paradise , nutmeg , cloves and sugar. These would be contained in small bags which were either steeped in wine or had liquid poured over them to produce hypocras and claré.

By the 14th century, bagged spice mixes could be bought ready-made from spice merchants. While wine was the most common table beverage in much of Europe, this was not the case in the northern regions where grapes were not cultivated.

Those who could afford it drank imported wine, but even for nobility in these areas it was common to drink beer or ale , particularly towards the end of the Middle Ages. In England , the Low Countries , northern Germany , Poland and Scandinavia , beer was consumed on a daily basis by people of all social classes and age groups.

For most medieval Europeans, it was a humble brew compared with common southern drinks and cooking ingredients, such as wine, lemons and olive oil. Even comparatively exotic products like camel 's milk and gazelle meat generally received more positive attention in medical texts.

Beer was just an acceptable alternative and was assigned various negative qualities. In , the Sienese physician Aldobrandino described beer in the following way:. But from whichever it is made, whether from oats, barley or wheat, it harms the head and the stomach, it causes bad breath and ruins the teeth , it fills the stomach with bad fumes, and as a result anyone who drinks it along with wine becomes drunk quickly; but it does have the property of facilitating urination and makes one's flesh white and smooth.

The intoxicating effect of beer was believed to last longer than that of wine, but it was also admitted that it did not create the "false thirst" associated with wine. Though less prominent than in the north, beer was consumed in northern France and the Italian mainland. Perhaps as a consequence of the Norman conquest and the travelling of nobles between France and England, one French variant described in the 14th century cookbook Le Menagier de Paris was called godale most likely a direct borrowing from the English "good ale" and was made from barley and spelt , but without hops.

In England there were also the variants poset ale , made from hot milk and cold ale, and brakot or braggot , a spiced ale prepared much like hypocras. That hops could be used for flavoring beer had been known at least since Carolingian times, but was adopted gradually due to difficulties in establishing the appropriate proportions. Before the widespread use of hops, gruit , a mix of various herbs , had been used.

Gruit had the same preserving properties as hops, though less reliable depending on what herbs were in it, and the end result was much more variable. Another flavoring method was to increase the alcohol content, but this was more expensive and lent the beer the undesired characteristic of being a quick and heavy intoxicant.

Hops may have been widely used in England in the tenth century; they were grown in Austria by and in Finland by , and possibly much earlier. Before hops became popular as an ingredient, it was difficult to preserve this beverage for any time, and so, it was mostly consumed fresh. Quantities of beer consumed by medieval residents of Europe, as recorded in contemporary literature, far exceed intakes in the modern world.

For example, sailors in 16th century England and Denmark received a ration of 1 imperial gallon 4. Polish peasants consumed up to 3 litres 0. In the Early Middle Ages beer was primarily brewed in monasteries , and on a smaller scale in individual households.

By the High Middle Ages breweries in the fledgling medieval towns of northern Germany began to take over production. Though most of the breweries were small family businesses that employed at most eight to ten people, regular production allowed for investment in better equipment and increased experimentation with new recipes and brewing techniques. These operations later spread to the Netherlands in the 14th century, then to Flanders and Brabant , and reached England by the 15th century.

Hopped beer became very popular in the last decades of the Late Middle Ages. When perfected as an ingredient, hops could make beer keep for six months or more, and facilitated extensive exports. In turn, ale or beer was classified into "strong" and "small", the latter less intoxicating, regarded as a drink of temperate people, and suitable for consumption by children.

As late as , John Locke stated that the only drink he considered suitable for children of all ages was small beer, while criticizing the apparently common practice among Englishmen of the time to give their children wine and strong alcohol. By modern standards, the brewing process was relatively inefficient, but capable of producing quite strong alcohol when that was desired.

One recent attempt to recreate medieval English "strong ale" using recipes and techniques of the era albeit with the use of modern yeast strains yielded a strongly alcoholic brew with original gravity of 1.

The ancient Greeks and Romans knew of the technique of distillation , but it was not practiced on a major scale in Europe until some time around the 12th century, when Arabic innovations in the field combined with water-cooled glass alembics were introduced. Distillation was believed by medieval scholars to produce the essence of the liquid being purified, and the term aqua vitae "water of life" was used as a generic term for all kinds of distillates.

Alcoholic distillates were also occasionally used to create dazzling, fire-breathing entremets a type of entertainment dish after a course by soaking a piece of cotton in spirits. It would then be placed in the mouth of the stuffed, cooked and occasionally redressed animals, and lit just before presenting the creation.

Aqua vitae in its alcoholic forms was highly praised by medieval physicians. In Arnaldus of Villanova wrote that "[i]t prolongs good health, dissipates superfluous humours, reanimates the heart and maintains youth. By the 13th century, Hausbrand literally "home-burnt" from gebrannter wein, brandwein ; "burnt [distilled] wine" was commonplace, marking the origin of brandy. Towards the end of the Late Middle Ages, the consumption of spirits became so ingrained even among the general population that restrictions on sales and production began to appear in the late 15th century.

In the city of Nuremberg issued restrictions on the selling of aquavit on Sundays and official holidays. Spices were among the most luxurious products available in the Middle Ages, the most common being black pepper , cinnamon and the cheaper alternative cassia , cumin , nutmeg , ginger and cloves. They all had to be imported from plantations in Asia and Africa , which made them extremely expensive, and gave them social cachet such that pepper for example was hoarded, traded and conspicuously donated in the manner of gold bullion.

The value of these goods was the equivalent of a yearly supply of grain for 1. Sugar , unlike today, was considered to be a type of spice due to its high cost and humoral qualities. Even when a dish was dominated by a single flavor it was usually combined with another to produce a compound taste, for example parsley and cloves or pepper and ginger.

Common herbs such as sage , mustard , and parsley were grown and used in cooking all over Europe, as were caraway , mint , dill and fennel. Many of these plants grew throughout all of Europe or were cultivated in gardens, and were a cheaper alternative to exotic spices. Mustard was particularly popular with meat products and was described by Hildegard of Bingen — as poor man's food.

While locally grown herbs were less prestigious than spices, they were still used in upper-class food, but were then usually less prominent or included merely as coloring. Anise was used to flavor fish and chicken dishes, and its seeds were served as sugar-coated comfits.

Surviving medieval recipes frequently call for flavoring with a number of sour, tart liquids. Wine, verjuice the juice of unripe grapes or fruits vinegar and the juices of various fruits, especially those with tart flavors, were almost universal and a hallmark of late medieval cooking. Emphasizes the concept of mind, body, and spirit as necessary components of total well-being; principles of preventive health; and self-responsibility for personal health behaviors.

This course introduces students to practices and skills that are commonly used in community health and preventive health services. These include health screening skills and skills for communicating and interpreting screening results.

The course offers hands-on practice of these skills. Database Management in Community and Public Health. This course will focus on practical issues in database management. Students will learn how to perform basic query and reporting operations, migrate data between various file formats, share data using cloud data management systems such as Dropbox, prepare data for statistical analysis, conduct statistical analyses common in community and public health, perform data quality control and assurance procedures and develop formal documents for reporting outcomes.

Survey of Drugs and Health. Study of the use and abuse of drugs and other substances. Examines addiction, dependence, tolerance, motivation for use, and effects of substance abuse on health and society.

Survey of Human Nutrition. An overview approach to understanding the principles of nutrition and their effect on health and fitness. Emphasis on major nutritional issues throughout the human life cycle; self-evaluation of diet and fitness habits. Survey of Human Sexuality. A study examining the breadth of human sexuality, including psychosocial, cultural and physical aspects, and its impact on our lives.

Principles of Weight Management. An in-depth study of the field of prevention and management of obesity. This course provides practical application of nutritional, psychological, and physical activity principles that help individuals manage their own weight and is suitable for students in health, kinesiology, psychology, biology, counseling, or others.

A noncompetitive, monitored activity component is required. Physical Activity and Health. The course provides a survey of the health-related effects and social-cultural and behavioral determinants of physical activity and exercise.

Theories of Health Behavior. Designed to provide an overview of health behavior theories, program planning models and multi-level interventions typically used in public health. Each level of the socio-ecological model will be discussed including individual, interpersonal, organization, community and policy. Directed field experience is required. Formerly titled "Foundations of Health Theory. Study of community health problems and the function and organization of public, private, and voluntary health agencies, application of health theories and models and program planning methods.

Offered Fall Semester only. Organization, administration, and supervision of health programs in the community, school, business, or industry setting. Application of health theories, models and program planning methods is required. Application of theories and models for program development, implementation and evaluation. Health majors and minors only. Physical, social, and psychological development throughout the lifespan.

Implications for health professionals at all stages of development prenatal to death are addressed. Practical application of techniques for shaping healthier emotional behavior; emphasis on personality, stress management, and fulfilling relationships.

Child and Adolescent Health Promotion. Designed for students who are interested in promoting the health of youth, as well as those students pursuing academic training in education and community health. The primary goal of this course is to improve the health literacy of teachers and health promotion specialists through understanding and application of evidence-based child and adolescent health promotion concepts.

Program Planning and Evaluation. This course provides students with a basic understanding of planning, implementing, and evaluating health promotion programs in a variety of settings, including worksite, healthcare, and community and at a various levels individual, organization, community, policy.

Human Disease and Epidemiology. An in-depth look at the etiology, prevention, and treatment of chronic and contagious diseases afflicting humans and epidemiological methods.

An in-depth study of human sexuality, including psychosocial, cultural and physical aspects. An in-depth examination of the principles of nutrition and their effects on health and fitness.

Emphasis on critical thinking and translation of nutritional knowledge to real-world settings. Includes self-evaluation of diet and fitness habits. Application of health theories and models for program development, implementation, and evaluation in nutritional context. Environmental Health and Safety. Considers applicable factors of ecology, including problems related to water, waste, pesticides, foods, radiation, population, and other aspects of the total ecosystem, as well as personal and occupational safety within these parameters.

Capstone for Community Health and Preventive Services. This course aids students in synthesizing their classroom and internship experiences to reinforce critical skills and key responsibilities for Health Educators. This course will provide students with an overview of resources, skills, and recommendations regarding their professional development.

Student is required to have a cumulative grade point average of 2. The opportunity for work experience in a private or public health-related agency. Opportunities are developed in consultation with the faculty advisor and on-site coordinator. Special Studies in Health. Organized course offering the opportunity for specialized study in an area of health not available as part of the regular course offerings. Enrollment limited to candidates for honors in the Department of Health and Kinesiology during the last two semesters; consent of the Honors College.

Supervised research and preparation of an honors thesis. Practice in the techniques of individual physical activities. Sections focus on particular sports or fitness activities as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. Freshman Topics in Kinesiology. This course is designed to help students acquire the tools and life skills necessary to succeed in college and the future. The curriculum is an overview of topics including: Practice in the techniques of team sports.

Sections focus on particular sports as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. Generally offered Fall, Spring. Computer Applications in Kinesiology and Health. Application of computer and multimedia technology in Kinesiology and Health disciplines.

Lifetime Fitness Activity Instruction. Practice in delivering instructions in lifetime fitness activities for adults. These activities include cycling, hiking, jogging, golf, badminton and tennis. Fitness and Wellness Concepts. This course is designed to provide students with developmentally appropriate knowledge and skills in health and fitness.

The course will address health-related issues in personal, interpersonal, and community settings. An individual fitness requirement may be required. This course examines the word roots, prefixes, suffixes and terms used in medicine and clinical exercise.

A major focus will be on the terms used in the major organ systems of the body, diseases, injuries, and medical treatments. First Aid and CPR. A study of basic first aid procedures, cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR , automated external defibrillation AED , and blood borne pathogens. Upon successful completion of this course students will be able to sit for national certification in first aid and CPR.

Study of the history and philosophy of physical activity, and an introduction to anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, motor behavior, and psychology of exercise and sport. This course will also introduce careers in kinesiology and the requirements for graduation with a degree in kinesiology.

Formerly titled "Cultural and Scientific Foundations of Kinesiology. Outdoor Activities and Innovative Games. Practice in delivering instructions of selected outdoor activities hiking, orienteering, biking and innovative games for all age groups. Weekend class field trips required. Laboratory fee will be assessed.

Formerly titled "Outdoor Activities and Lifetime Sports. Introduction to concepts and skills that will prepare the student to become an effective leader of physical fitness, sport and health, and physical education programs.

Skill Analysis in Physical Activity: Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected individual activities such as golf, bowling, archery, and track and field. This course will discuss the principles and philosophies of coaching sports. Domains will remain consistent with that of the National Standards for Sport Coaches and will focus on philosophy and ethics, safety and injury prevention, physical conditioning, growth and development, teaching and communication, sport skills and tactics, organization and administration, and evaluation.

Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected team sports, such as football, volleyball, and team handball. Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected dual sports, such as badminton, tennis and handball. Practice in delivering a variety of appropriate aerobic, musculoskeletal fitness, and wellness activities for children and adults.

Formerly titled "Aerobic Fitness Instruction. Provide instruction in facilitating the foundational movement skills which provide the basis for all movement capacities and their application in specialized activities geared to the early childhood through adolescent stages. Formerly titled "Rhythmical Activities and Dance.

Instructional techniques applied to health related fitness using resistance training, balance, flexibility, and musculoskeletal conditioning activities. A study of motor, physical, and neuromuscular development across the human life span. Effects of social, cognitive, growth and maturation, and aging factors on motor development will be addressed. Directed field experience may be required. Scientific Principles of Physical Activity.

A study of the physiological and biomechanical principles of physical activity and human movement. Emphasis is placed on acute responses and chronic adaptations of the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems to physical activity. Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries. Prevention and care of athletic injuries.

A study of training and conditioning for the team and individual. Techniques and procedures for emergencies: Organization of the training room facility. Formerly titled "Athletic Injuries and Training Procedures. Anatomy and Physiology for Kinesiology. A detailed study of anatomy and physiology of the human cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal and nervous systems.

Emphasis will be placed on the anatomical factors that cause human movement and application to common exercise-related injuries. Anatomy laboratory hours may be required. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of human movement through analysis of video and biomechanical data. Application of Biomechanics to sports performance enhancement and injury prevention.

The study of the human body in sports motion and sport objects in motion. The application of mechanical principles, kinematics, and kinetics. Biomechanics laboratory hours are required. Development, organization, and delivery of appropriate physical activities for children through the adolescent stage. Some fieldwork observation experiences may be required.

Laboratory exercises demonstrating principles of exercise physiology. Topics include metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular responses to physical activity and exercise. A study of the adaptation and effects of the body to physiological stress. Emphasis will be placed on the physiology of training, metabolism and work capacity, and electrocardiography. Health Related Fitness Assessment Laboratory.

This course includes laboratory and clinical measurements of aerobic capacity, balance, body composition, electrocardiography, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and pulmonary function.

Students are required to demonstrate competence in administering health related physical fitness. Health Related Fitness Assessment. A study of the principles and concepts of fitness measurement. Topics include graded exercise testing, electrocardiography, assessment of aerobic capacity, body composition, flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and pulmonary function. Fitness Programming and Exercise Prescription.

A study and application of principles and concepts related to designing exercise programs. The target population includes apparently healthy adults and individuals with special considerations, including cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy, and children.

A detailed examination of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems. This course focuses on bones. The etiology and pathophysiology of common sport and exercise related injuries to the musculoskeleton will be introduced. Laboratory examination of the skeletal system may be required. An investigation of psychological processes and behaviors related to participation in exercise and physical activities. Psychological effects of exercise, motives for fitness, exercise adherence, and fitness counseling.

This course is designed to introduce students to a variety of therapeutic modalities currently used in clinical rehabilitation. Application of test, measurement, and evaluation theory. Emphasis is on proper selection and administration of tests, appropriate evaluation of test results using basic statistical procedures, and assignment of grades.

Introduction to Sport Psychology. This course involves an in-depth study of the psychological factors that underlie and support human behavior and performance, particularly as it relates to sports.

This course introduces contemporary and practical theories regarding mental processes and applicable uses for this information. Formerly titled "Psychosocial Aspects of Exercise and Sport. Evaluation of Athletic Injuries. This course deals in depth with issues related to athletic training, including assessment of injuries, and proper taping and wrapping techniques. Formerly titled "Advanced Athletic Training.

Teaching Secondary Physical Education. Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to the teaching and learning of physical education in the secondary school curriculum. Contemporary programming, behavior management strategies, and community outreach activities will be emphasized.

Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the secondary school level is required. Restricted course; advisor code required for registration. In-depth study of exercise physiology, emphasizing application of physiological principles of training for physical fitness and sport performance, graded exercise testing, and professional issues. This course includes introduction to research in exercise physiology. This course examines various therapeutic exercises and programs used in the treatment and rehabilitation of exercise-related injuries.

This course will address the basic concepts of nutrition from a scientific basis, applying these concepts to understanding of food nutritional labeling, dietary recommendations for health and fitness, as well as exercise or sport performance enhancement.

This course will examine the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for exercise physiology practiced in clinical settings. Topics will include diseases of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic systems.

Skills in administering graded exercise testing with ECG monitoring, pulmonary function testing, and screening for metabolic disease will be emphasized in laboratory settings. Additionally, exercise prescription and programming will be studied for persons with chronic disease.

Teaching Elementary Physical Education. Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to teaching and facilitating learning of physical education in the elementary school curriculum. Contemporary programming, problem solving, and community outreach activities will be emphasized. Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the elementary school level is required.

Study of concepts of movement awareness and the elements of movement that are the basis of all movement capacities. Application of these concepts to the learning of motor skills will be included. Laboratory exercises demonstrating the principles of motor learning and motor control. Functional applications of motor control and learning theory in skill instruction and sports performance. Motor learning laboratory hours are required.

Theory of coaching relevant to athletics. Emphasis on organization and content involved in coaching sports. The sport content may vary in different semesters between baseball, basketball, football, soccer, softball, and volleyball. Course may be repeated for credit. A developmental and functional approach to the study of disabilities in physical activity. Legislation, pathologies, and adaptation principles. Field experience is required throughout the course. Clinical Applications of Athletic Injuries.

Consent of instructor and admission to the Athletic Training concentration or Kinesiology and Health Science concentration. This course provides practical applications in prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of athletic injuries, and includes hours of supervised field, laboratory and clinical experiences in athletic training. May be repeated for credit for a maximum of 6 semester credit hours. Practicum in Kinesiology Research.

Admission to Kinesiology major and consent of Instructor. This course provides supervised research experience in various areas of kinesiology. May be repeated for credit, but not more than 6 semester credit hours will apply to a bachelor's degree. Supervised internship with appropriate agency in the field of kinesiology. First Aid and CPR certification and consent of instructor. Supervised coaching practicum with appropriate agency in the field of kinesiology.

Formerly titled "Practicum in Kinesiology. Organized course offering the opportunity for specialized study not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings. Students will learn and apply counseling techniques to promote the adoption of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in diverse populations. Basic counseling theories will be introduced. Capstone course and seminar for students pursuing training and certification in exercise science, and preparation for graduate studies.

Introduction to Nutritional Sciences. Basic concepts related to the classification and functions of nutrients; the process of digestion, absorption, transport, utilization, and storage of nutrients in humans and the interaction between diet and health.

Applied Food Science Practicum. The application of concepts related to the chemical, physical, sensory, and nutritional properties of food in menu planning, food preparation, and recipe modification. Introduction to Nutrition and Dietetics Careers.

Nutrition and Dietetics majors only. General overview of nutrition and dietetics as a profession, including career opportunities, scope of practice, credentialing, code of ethics, and collaboration with other disciplines.

Self-directed modules on medical terminology, word roots, prefixes and suffixes will be integrated into the course content. Practicum related to the procurement, preparation, and delivery of food in large foodservice operations.

Concepts related to the chemical, physical, sensory, and nutritional properties of food in menu planning, food preparation, and recipe modification. Nutrition and Health Assessment. Methods, tools, and interpretation of data in assessing the nutritional status of individuals including dietary, anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessment, as well as other measurements of health in individuals and the community. Nutrition Counseling and Education. Discussion of theories of learning and behavior modification, models and techniques, communication skills, evaluation methods, and cultural competence in nutrition counseling and education; and application of concepts to facilitate behavioral change.

Nutrition in the Life Span. Nutritional needs during various stages of the lifecycle as influenced by physiologic, cultural, and environmental factors. Production and Foodservice System Management I. Principles related to the menu planning, food sanitation and safety, procurement, production, marketing, and materials management in foodservice operations Generally offered: Advanced discussion of nutrient structure, function and interaction, metabolic pathways, and regulation and integration of metabolism.

Application of learned strategies in meaningful community service through collaborative tasks performed at various community programs.

Service learning activities are aimed at enriching the life experiences of students through civic responsibility and community outreach. Nutrition Care Process Practicum. A problem-based approach to dietetics practice using case simulations and studies; application of basic nutritional assessment skills, nutritional diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring in different settings; practice skills in counseling and nutrition education.

Theories and principles related to the foodservice, systems management including leadership, decision-making, human resources, and financial management of operations. Medical Nutrition Therapy I. Pathophysiology and the application of the nutritional care process in the treatment of simple human diseases and conditions, part 1. Nutrition-related issues in public health, various community resources, agencies, and programs involved in health promotion and disease prevention.

Nutrition in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Medical Nutrition Therapy II. Continuation of Advanced Medical Nutrition I; and review of the pathophysiology and the application of the nutritional care process in the treatment of more complex human disease and conditions. Current Issues in Nutrition. In-depth discussion and analysis of emerging trends, concepts, and controversies in nutritional sciences, including application of evidence-based principles in the discussion.

Independent Study in Nutrition and Dietetics. An exploration of topics of interest to the student in Nutrition and Dietetics.

Students work under the close supervision of a faculty member to conduct research, intense study, or a project related to the selected topic. Introduction to Public Health. Introduces students to the discipline of public health.

It will cover a variety of disciplines to the basic tenets of public health. The course will also cover the role of public health in a global society. Data Management in Public Health. Study of the skills required to design, organize and implement a data management system in public health applications. It will cover an introduction to data preparation for statistical analysis, development of organizational tools, methods of data acquisition, data collection form design, principles of database development, quality control of data, and data security.

Provides the student with basic knowledge about epidemiological applications in a behavioral area. It covers behavioral and social environmental issues related to disease etiology, premature morbidity and mortality patterns.

Provides an overview of the epidemiology of specific health-related behaviors, the relationships between these behaviors and health outcomes, and available evidence for the effectiveness and appropriateness of various approaches to modification of these behaviors. Utilizes case discussion seminars to appraise the investigative methods and research designs for studying disease outbreaks and new epidemics.

Department Honors