Modes of Nutrition in Plants and Animals (with diagrams)

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Healthy Eating for Weight Loss
For example, oranges provide vitamin C but no vitamin B To have all of the data in one place so you can use the modern informatics equipment to juxtapose the bits and pieces of data and look for the best fit, is an absolutely fascinating possibility. There are two main stages in the entire process of photosynthesis. Craig Venter's announcement that his team would finish the entire genome in just two years galvanized everybody working on the public project. So here are three bald guys and take their blood and look at their DNA.

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Mechanical trauma, also known as muscle damage, occurs when you lower a weight or hit the eccentric portion of the lift hard. It can happen when you do things like forced reps or negative reps, as well as during heavy lifting—think the bottom of a squat. This is when you focus in on destroying the muscle. You've probably heard about how when you train for hypertrophy, you create "micro tears" and tiny abrasions in your muscles, and that the recovery from these small injuries is how muscle grows.

This is true, but it's not the only way to train for growth. Training with an emphasis on muscle damage and working to failure is definitely effective, but like anything, it can also be overdone. Use it as one of several tools in a balanced program, and you'll maximize the benefit you receive from it. Everyone knows that burning sensation you get when you're training.

That is metabolic stress, which is another name for acid building up in the muscle. One of my colleagues, Dr. David Gundermann, took the novel step of isolating muscle cells putting them in lactic acid. The mechanism that causes that burning sensation can actually make muscle grow. This is one reason to keep your rest periods short on a hypertrophy day. If you rest for five minutes, talking about what you did over the weekend, that clears all out that metabolic stress.

This is part of the reasoning behind keeping rest periods short, like 60 seconds or less, or occasionally removing them altogether and doing supersets or strip sets. I think the biggest mistake people make is underestimating their capabilities. They limit themselves mentally, and that leads to limiting themselves physically. For example, I can't tell you how many times I hear or read things like, "Oh my God, I'm going to overtrain, so I can only train everything once a week.

Sometimes when you have an overload on the muscle every day your performance is not going to be the best, but you are beating the muscle up so much, it has no choice but to grow. There are new studies coming out by some of my colleagues in Finland and Norway where they show incredible gains from weightlifters who change from three days per week of training to six days per week of training per body part.

That's an advanced technique that isn't appropriate for everyone, but the larger point is this: The human body can withstand a lot more than you think, so long as your nutrition and sleep are in place.

When the goal is mass and creating the most anabolism protein synthesis , compound movements that hit muscle groups should always be the center of a bodybuilding program. That's going to be things like squats, bench presses, and leg presses.

But make no mistake; there is a difference between bodybuilding and powerlifting. Namely, bodybuilding is about making exercises harder. You're trying to beat your muscles up. If you're doing a bench press and you're bodybuilding, your back might be flat, you'll focus on the muscle, and on every aspect of the lift. If you are a powerlifter, you're going to get an arch in your back, shorten the range of motion, and use more leg drive.

The same thing applies with squatting. In powerlifting, your goal is to get the weight up, and you can take steps to make that easier: But in bodybuilding you're focusing on destroying the muscle.

So you'll see lifters use dropsets, pre-exhaustion, and other overload techniques. Once you have your compound movements in place, however, bodybuilding is also a sport of symmetry. This is where isolation movements come in. Use them as tools, but not as the foundation. A lifter who does all isolation and no compound movements is going to be light years behind one with a more balanced program.

As I mentioned earlier, one of the fundamental dichotomies of bodybuilding is to gain size and lose fat at the same time. To gain size you lift weights, and to lose fat you do cardio. Yes, except that plenty of bodybuilders do hours of cardio every day, an amount on par with high-level endurance athletes.

But look at a marathon runner. Is that something a bodybuilder aspires to be? What we found in our laboratory is that the longer you do cardio, the more muscle you lose. Why would you spend all this time in the off-season gaining muscle, if you're only going to lose a lot of it with long-duration cardio? This is exactly the problem we've been trying to solve. The answer is high-intensity interval training , or HIIT, as it's often known. When I say high intensity, I'm talking about seconds of all-out, balls-to-the-wall sprinting.

If you do it for 10 seconds, you should have nothing left at the end. After 30 seconds of work, you should feel like you're going to die. But you'd better believe it's effective.

We found that in just 10 seconds of this type of training, you can deplete your muscle energy stores by approximately 15 percent. That might take 60 minutes to achieve with traditional cardio. What that does is send a massive signal to your body saying, "Oh my God, I have to increase my fat burning machinery. The results are truly remarkable.

We've found that with seconds of all-out sprints, you can actually lose more fat in just a few minutes than with the long duration minute cardio—and you maintain your size. We did a study in our lab where we compared low-intensity cardio to high-intensity cardio side by side, and not only did the sprinters lose more fat, they even gained muscle in their quads.

So sprinting can even be anabolic! Say you're someone who responds well to heavy training. Every time you to go the gym, all you do is lift with eight or fewer repetitions per set, heavy weights, and with long rest periods. You're constantly loading the muscle, and that's where it can take a toll on your joints and ligaments. Eventually, you feel the strain, and you get an injury.

For a competitive bodybuilder, this is the worst thing ever. After plasma enters the proximal tubule, it passes through the coils, where usable materials and water are reclaimed. Salts, glucose, amino acids, and other useful compounds flow back through tubular cells into the blood by active transport. Osmosis and the activity of hormones assist the movement. The blood fluid then flows through the loop of Henle into the distal tubule. Once more, salts, water, and other useful materials flow back into the bloodstream.

Homeostasis is achieved by this process: A selected amount of hydrogen, ammonium, sodium, chloride, and other ions maintain the delicate salt balance in the body. The fluid moving from the distal tubules into the collecting duct contains urine. The urine flows through the ureters toward the urinary bladder. When the bladder is full, the urine flows through the urethra to the exterior.

For example, if a person consumes large amounts of protein, much urea will be in the blood from the digestion of the protein. Also, on a hot day, a body will retain water for sweating and cooling, so the amount of urine is reduced. Humans produce a hormone called antidiuretic hormone ADH , also known as vasopressin, which is secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

It regulates the amount of urine by controlling the rate of water absorption in the nephron tubules. Some individuals suffer from a condition in which they secrete very low levels of ADH.

The result is excessive urination and a disease called diabetes insipidus. Another unrelated form of diabetes, diabetes mellitus, is more widespread. People with this disease produce insufficient levels of insulin. Insulin normally transports glucose molecules into the cells. But when insulin is not available, the glucose remains in the bloodstream.

The glucose is removed from the bloodstream in the nephron; to dilute the glucose, the nephron removes large amounts of water from the blood.

Thus, the urine tends to be plentiful. Hormones from the cortex of the adrenal glands also control the content of urine. These hormones promote reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the tubules.