WGO Practice Guideline - Diet and the Gut (English)

ISBN13: 978-1259087271


The program is designed to prepare its graduates to enter the rapidly changing automotive repair industry. Ingestion of 15—20 g glucose is the preferred treatment for hypoglycemia, although any form of carbohydrate that contains glucose may be used. J Am Diet Assoc Pulsed intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in livedoid vasculitis: Species that may be dangerous to workers due to size or species-characteristic behavior or capabilities require additional precautions see sections 5. N Engl J Med Nutrition principles and recommendations in diabetes Position Statement.

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Examples can include blood and milt collection, and certain fin clipping and tagging methods. If the goal of the research is to collect an imperiled species for live study, or if incidental capture is anticipated as bycatch, then any collection methods that may be injurious e. Conservation efforts for imperiled fish species frequently involve translocations, either among natural localities or from nature to propagation facilities and then back to nature.

The environmental laws governing translocations of imperiled fishes are complex and based on such matters as resource use, suitability and security of transplant sites, and the appropriateness of transplanted individuals among sites i. All translocation efforts must be conducted by the agency with authority and responsibility for the species and area in question and should not be attempted by unauthorized individuals.

The collection of fishes from natural populations for museum preservation is critical for 1 understanding basic biology and life history, 2 documenting and recording biodiversity, and 3 establishing reference collections essential for understanding evolutionary relationships and environmental effects ASIH et al.

Studies of ecosystem variation or delineation of new species frequently require collection of relatively large series sufficient for computing statistics on counts and measurements from multiple populations across geographic ranges Hughes and McCormick Sampling natural fish populations for these purposes typically involves broad surveys and collection of specimens in proportion to their occurrence in natural populations; moreover, such sampling may not be hypothesis-driven.

Studies of molecular systematics typically involve very small numbers of specimens, or small amounts of tissue removed from study fishes. Museum collections of fishes are also available for use in other types of research. Two important principles that should be followed in collecting fishes for museum preservation are 1 the numbers of specimens collected should be the minimum necessary to accomplish study goals, and 2 animals collected should serve a variety of studies.

Precise notations containing specific field data such as date, exact location, habitat type, etc. Specimens collected for museum deposition should be preserved in a manner that maximizes their utility for study and minimizes the need for additional collecting.

Formalin fixation is the standard practice used to ensure long-term preservation quality of fish specimens. Chemicals are often added to formalin to buffer the solution or to preserve color e.

Fixation by these methods typically involves small pieces of tissue dissected from specimens that may be sacrificed by means other than immersion in formalin. Carcasses for long-term archiving as voucher specimens should be fixed in formalin and later transferred to alcohol. Euthanizing fish prior to immersion in formalin should be practiced, provided that the sedative does not cause effects detrimental to the objectives of the research.

A variety of chemicals, such as tricaine methanesulfonate MS , may be used to anesthetize or euthanize fishes see section 7. When study interests demand that specimens be fixed without prior treatment with sedatives, the specimens can be numbed in ice water, or for small fishes, immersed directly in liquid nitrogen see section 8.

Portions of animal specimens, including sperm, ova, embryos, tissues, and serum, are sometimes tissue banked. For example, the National Animal Germplasm Program http: Various iterations of specimen banking for retrospective analyses occur globally for a multitude of investigations, including environmental monitoring, genetics research, and systematics.

Fish tissue liver and muscle has been collected for the long-term storage of a variety of environmental specimens by the National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST, http: The choice of a sampling method should be dictated by worker safety, research objectives, seasonal considerations, and the habitat type to be sampled. Capture techniques should prevent or minimize injury and stress see section 4. Live wells or tanks should be provided if fishes are to be kept for more than the time needed to collect essential metrics.

Care should be taken to avoid accidental capture of nontarget species and to ensure release of incidentally collected individuals with minimal or no injury ASIH et al. Species that may be dangerous to workers due to size or species-characteristic behavior or capabilities require additional precautions see sections 5. Several studies have shown electrofishing to be among the most effective techniques for obtaining fish assemblage data in freshwater habitats Yoder and Smith Electrofishing can be performed by wading methods or boat-mounted methods.

Appropriate electrofishing protocols should consider the sampling purpose and physical constraints of the environment e. Alternative sampling methods, such as seining, gill or trammel nets, trawls, cast nets, lift or push nets, rigid traps e. The sampling methods chosen should allow for efficient capture of the species and sizes of fish needed to address research objectives while minimizing injury and mortality of collected fishes and non-target organisms.

Multiple sampling gears may be required for the collection of a broad range of fish sizes or species or if diverse habitats are covered. Passive capture methods, such as set nets and traps, should be checked frequently enough to prevent unnecessary mortality of both target and non-target species. Prolonged restraint that causes physiological stress should be avoided. In some cases, use of a sedative or anesthetic agent to minimize stress may be advisable. Depending on the chemical agent and its mode of action in fish, one or more of these terms may apply.

However, use of MS in the field is limited because of an FDA requirement that food fish, including feral fishes that may be caught and eaten by humans, must go through a day withdrawal period prior to release or slaughter for human consumption Anderson et al. When handling the dry form of the chemical, personal protective equipment such as a respiratory mask and gloves should be used.

See Coyle et al. Unlike many therapeutic drugs, these sedatives cannot be prescribed for extra-label uses i. More specifically, if an appropriate grade of CO 2 is used, good management practices are followed, and local environmental requirements are met, the FDA has determined that regulatory action against the use of CO 2 as a fish sedative is unlikely. Currently, the eugenol-based product can be used as an immediate-release sedative for field applications where it is likely that fish will be sedated just once in their lifetime.

All other applications require a 3-day withdrawal period. With the use of any sedative, a small number of fish should be tested to determine a suitable dose within the allowable ranges and to ensure that the species will return to normal physiological and behavioral status within an acceptable recovery time.

The animals must be kept under observation until appropriate recovery occurs see section 4. Used sedatives must undergo disposal in accordance with local, state, tribal, provincial, and federal regulations see also 5. Species considered dangerous to humans are most often encountered under field conditions, yet the guidelines are similar for laboratory situations.

Dangerous species should be handled in a manner that is safe for both the investigator and the animal being handled. Investigators should be cognizant of safety regulations for their institution regarding the use of dangerous or venomous animals.

Those regulations may include SOPs that limit access for only authorized personnel, specify use of protective clothing or handling devices, and dictate treatment of individuals injured by the animals, including first aid and procedures for obtaining follow-up medical care. Special handling methods will depend upon the species being handled, the nature of the danger to the investigator, and the nature of the research effort. Overall, consulting the relevant literature and colleagues experienced with the species is of primary importance.

For general as well as specific information, with special reference to the marine environment, several books are available that are primarily written as cautionary first aid guides for scuba divers, free divers, and snorkelers who frequently come into contact with marine animals Halstead ; Cunningham and Goetz ; Auerback , as is information on the Divers Alert Network DAN Web site www.

Fishes will exhibit some degree of stress response when handled and transported. Methods of handling fishes vary with the species, the environment in which they are found, and the tradition and resources of a particular region or country Avault Stress responses can be reduced, however, by eliminating rough handling, rapid temperature changes, sudden water quality changes, abrasion, and excessively tight confinement.

Inappropriate handling and transport procedures can contribute to changes in blood profiles Ellsaesser and Clem and substantial mortalities Weirich ; Carmichael et al.

Handling and transport procedures must be designed to minimize the effects of stress and thereby reduce immediate and delayed losses see section 4. Some physiological changes that occur in response to handling and transport stressors are measurable and can be monitored. These changes include increased cardiac output, increased gill vascularity, and release of catecholamines and corticosteroid hormones Carmichael et al.

Handling of fishes in the field or in the laboratory is frequently characterized by increased susceptibility to disease thought to be mediated by immunologic suppression Wedemeyer Lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and lymphocyte nonresponsiveness have been noted as results of handling and transport stress Ellsaesser and Clem Clinical hematological values are available for some species Stoskopf b.

Depending on the severity of the stressors and exposure time, mortality can result from osmoregulatory dysfunction and immunosuppression. To mitigate stress associated with handling and transport, the investigator can reduce the number and severity of the stressors, minimize the duration of stressors, and minimize increases in metabolic rate. Harvesting techniques and preshipment treatment are important to the successful shipping of live fish Dupree and Huner Preconditioning treatments can involve the addition of sedatives to reduce metabolic rate, or salt or calcium to the transport water to prevent or reduce osmoregulatory dysfunction and resulting ionic imbalances Carmichael et al.

Feed should be withheld for 1 or 2 days prior to transport Weirich Generally, transports are less damaging to animals if done in cool weather. Proper equipment for transport should be used. Transport tanks should be well constructed and should be disinfected before use Avault The weight of fish that can be transported safely in a live-hauling vehicle depends on efficiency of the aeration system, duration of the haul, water temperature, fish size, and fish species Avault Maintaining acceptable ranges of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, temperature, ammonia, and pH during transport is essential.

Fishes can be transferred between capture and transport units, or between transport units and holding units, by wet or dry transfer methods. Wet transfer involves transport of fishes in a container of water and minimizes direct contact with nets. Wet transfer usually results in less stress than dry transfer, where the net is used alone. Ideally, fishes should be allowed to recover in the same or similar medium used for transport Carmichael et al.

The length of time for recovery may vary depending upon conditions, the amount of handling, and research objectives, but 72 hours typically is considered a minimum following extensive handling see section 5.

Because the biological needs of each aquatic species and the nature of individual projects vary, only the most general recommendations are provided on temporary holding and maintenance.

Testing and comparing several methods of housing may be necessary in order to find the most appropriate for the needs of the species and the purpose s of the study. Ease of maintenance by animal keepers, though important, should not be the prime determinants of housing conditions; however, such ease generally ensures greater compliance with established maintenance protocols ASIH et al. Normal field maintenance facilities should incorporate those aspects of the natural habitat deemed important to the survival and well-being of the animal.

Adequacy of the maintenance facility can be monitored by observing changes in animal growth and weight, survival rates, activity levels, general behavior, and appearance Snieszko Nutritionally balanced diets should be provided, or natural foods should be duplicated as closely as possible.

Natural light and temperature conditions should be followed unless alteration of these factors is under investigation for achieving a desired effect e. Fish species have optimal thermal regimes Sylvester , and the immune system functions best within such ranges Bly and Clem Diseases occur during temperature windows as well, such as Edwardsiella ictaluri in Channel Catfish Hawke Frequency of tank cleaning should represent a compromise between the level of cleanliness necessary to prevent disease and the amount of stress imposed by frequent handling ASIH et al.

For culture, bait, or sportfish species, fishes are generally held in vats or tanks before shipment. This holding enables the producer to grade fish according to size and to administer drug therapies if necessary. Holding also acclimates the fish for handling and transport Huner et al.

When Channel Catfish are harvested from a pond, live cars or fish holding bags are used in the industry Huner et al. These methods generally are applicable to all pond-reared species. In pond holding situations, fishes might be moved to deeper water in which cases the use of recirculating pumps or aerators can be beneficial.

As with other containment systems, the holding tank needs to allow for the stocking density or the relation of fish biomass to available water volume.

Water inflow and turnover rate must be considered because sufficient water exchanges are needed for good water quality. Oxygen available in the incoming water needs to exceed the metabolic oxygen consumption by fishes in the tank Casebolt et al.

Sufficient aeration can be supplied by compressed air, injected or bottled oxygen, or agitation. Sedatives can also be used to reduce the physical activities of fishes, if consistent with research objectives. Excess noise and vibrations should be avoided because such factors can produce acute or chronic stress response in fish Stoskopf see section 7.

If extreme weather and environmental events occur, emergency preparedness measures may be necessary for future short-term maintenance of research animals.

For instance, excess feed storage, alternative water supplies, and back-up generators may need to be in place. Because numerous physiological processes can be altered upon handling and transferring fishes, acclimating or conditioning fish to their new environment lessens potential negative effects.

If the physical and chemical qualities of the water supply for the temporary holding facility see section 5. For example, fish in floating plastic bags with an atmosphere of oxygen above the water may be used to allow the captured fish to acclimate to the new water temperature. If differences are more substantial, gradually replacing the water in transport units with source water from the holding unit is a common practice that provides adequate time for fish acclimation.

Useful notes on how to transport and acclimate live warmwater fishes are summarized in the Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Transportation of Warmwater Fish factsheets Loading Rates and Tips by Species Jensen a, https: Results obtained from careful collection and examination of blood and other tissues are often critically important to research on fishes Blaxhall ; Fange Sterile conditions for these procedures are often impossible to provide under field conditions, and care must be exercised to prevent injuries and stresses to the animals.

Samples of blood and body fluids can be obtained from fishes without compromising their survival, even from small specimens under grams Stoskopf a. Plastic syringes containing a small amount of anticoagulant such as sodium- or ammonium heparin or sodium citrate are suggested to prevent blood clotting. Study objectives will determine the proper selection of type, volume, and concentration of anticoagulant, if needed.

Three main techniques have been devised for collecting blood from fishes: The tail is the preferred site for blood sampling. The vessels running beneath the vertebrae of the fish can be sampled by using a lateral or ventral approach. Cardiac punctures from the ventral side are sometimes used in fusiform fishes or through the operculum in laterally compressed species.

For repeated sampling, cannulae may be implanted in the dorsal aorta through the buccal cavity. Blood from the caudal vessels may be collected directly into collection tubes by cutting off the tails of sedated fish that will be euthanized following the procedure.

However, extraneous fluids and proteins that may influence cell quality often co-occur with this procedure.

Caution must be exercised to ensure that the method of sedation will not interfere with subsequent analyses. Additional information on sampling methods for the collection of blood from fishes has been described by Klontz and Smith , Smith et al.

Additional tissues that are useful for collection include otoliths, gills, kidney, thyroid, spleen, testes, ovaries, liver, heart, brain, and muscle. Collection of internal tissues typically requires sacrifice of the subject animals and must be preceded by appropriate anesthesia or euthanasia see section 8.

These tissues can also be used for such purposes as contaminants analyses see section 5. Tissues may be used fresh or frozen, or placed in a fixation or preserving medium such as buffered formalin, ethanol, or methanol and then histologically processed Luna ; Presnell et al.

The purposes of some studies may be served by collections of scales, spines, or small pieces of fin, which can be accomplished with minimal effects on live fish and may be considered non-invasive sampling.

This is important when working with imperiled species and small populations see section 5. When transporting live tissues, the medium must have appropriate ionic and osmotic concentrations and may contain a sugar as an energy source. Noncytotoxic antibiotics or antimycotic agents may be included to prevent the growth of bacterial and fungal organisms Jenkins a; Jenkins et al.

Certain cell and nucleic acid stabilizers can make sampling of fish possible from remote locations for later tissue analysis in the laboratory Olivier and Jenkins, in press.

Tagged and marked animals have been studied to obtain information on their behavior, population dynamics, and ecology, all of which are essential for developing conservation and management strategies. Investigators can use both intrinsic and extrinsic identification systems, allowing the nature of the study to dictate the type of tag or mark employed.

Integrated use of more than one tagging or marking technique helps ensure fish identification and is helpful in estimating tag loss rates. Basic considerations for selecting a particular type of tag or mark in the context of the study objectives include potential effects on animal survival, behavior, and growth; tag permanency and recognition; number and size of the animals; stress of capture, handling, and marking; total costs; recovery of the marked fishes; and any required coordination among agencies, states, provinces, or countries Pine et al.

Investigators should also determine if the animal will be at greater than normal risk to predation, if its desirability as a mate will be reduced, and if a risk of infection is increased substantially, as well as other potential impacts ASIH et al.

Because techniques for tagging and marking fishes have been extensively reviewed and are constantly evolving, literature reviews should inform the researcher McFarlane et al. The effects of marking on fishes depend on the physical condition of the fish at the time of release. Occurrence of injury is species and size specific, and smaller fishes may be more susceptible.

Minor wounds caused by most tagging and marking procedures typically heal satisfactorily without treatment with antibiotics. All sedatives or antibiotics administered must be used in a manner consistent with regulatory requirements. The use of external tags and marks has evolved over a long period of time McFarlane et al. Both natural marks and artificial tags or marks are in common use in fisheries research, and each type offers different capabilities, as well as limitations.

Natural, external marks include meristic characteristics, pigmentation, morphometric measures, and scale characteristics, but natural marks are subject to environmental and genetic influences. Fish scale shape and size, as well as circulus spacing, are frequently used. The effective use of natural marks requires being well informed on fish life history. Multiple methods are available for generating artificial external marks on fishes.

Alteration of fins or other body parts, in practice for over years, can be accomplished by clipping or hole punching. The selection of fins for clipping or removal is dependent upon the species under study; for example, clipping the anal fin of poeciliid males would be inappropriate because it functions as a copulatory organ, yet removal of the adipose fin of a salmonid would have negligible impacts ASIH et al.

Hot or cold branding, the process of marking by placing an apparatus e. Fishes should be anesthetized prior to branding. External colorants for marking fishes include dyes, stains, inks, paints, liquid latex, visible implant elastomers, and plastics that are administered by immersion, spraying, injection, or tattooing.

Care is needed for distinguishing external colorant marks of similar tones Curtis External tags are conspicuous by their color, shape, size, or location of attachment and are composed of various materials. Designed for hydroturbine passage survival studies, an external transmitter that is molded to the fish has shown utility Deng et al. External tags commonly applied to fishes include dart nd t-bar anchor tags, disc tags, Carlin tags, and spaghetti or loop tags Guy et al.

Dart and anchor tags are the most frequently used external tags Nielsen , but a high loss rate has been reported in some species Guy et al. Proper insertion technique and use of small tags relative to fish size can reduce the potential for fish injury and tag loss Guy et al. Implanted coded wire tags, radio and acoustic telemetry transmitters, archival biologgers, passive integrated transponder PIT tags, visible implanted alpha numeric tags, otolith marks, and natural parasites are internal marking systems used to identify fish Prentice et al.

The use of a coded wire tag identification system has been tested for management and research applications with multiple genera of fishes Buckley and Blankenship including juvenile salmonids Liedtke et al. The coded wire tag is normally injected into cartilage, connective tissue, or muscle and is detected electronically later with a handheld device.

Each PIT tag carries a unique code that is relayed to a handheld or stationary reading device when the tag is within range. Advantages of PIT tags include a long lifespan and generally a high retention rate Freeland ; Guy et al.

The PIT tag data can be read through soft and hard fish tissue; in seawater and freshwater; through glass, plastic, and metal containers; and when fishes are moving at some velocity. Above certain fish size thresholds Tatara , they have little or no effect on fish growth, survival, or behavior Prentice et al.

Various tags and methods are available for the PIT tagging procedures; information can be found at state websites e. Visible implanted tags are alphanumerically coded and made of polyester film. They are inserted subcutaneously into transparent tissue so that they remain externally visible Haw et al. Common tagging locations include transparent tissues posterior to the eye, in the lower jaw, or in fin membranes.

Tag retention varies by species, tag location within the body, and fish size; very small fishes may have insufficient transparent tissue to accommodate the size of the tag Griffiths Manipulating environmental temperature, feeding rates, photoperiod, external chemical baths, or labeled feeds can induce specific marks in fish otoliths. Fishes being propagated under controlled conditions are ideal for such manipulations. Otolith microstructural features and induced marks are permanent and can be viewed and analyzed in fish of any age.

Tetracycline and other fluorescent compounds e. Fish size, compound dosage and uptake method, and water chemistry can influence marking success with fluorescent compounds Beckman et al.

Marking success is highest during times when fish growth is rapid Conover and Sheehan Otoliths and other calcified structures can also be marked with alkaline earth and rare earth elements Behrens Yamada and Mulligan or isotopically labeled compounds Munro et al. Fisheries that require stock definitions and assessment of stocking success or dispersal of early life stages are well suited to otolith-marking techniques.

Several taxonomic groups of fish parasites have been used as biological tags, and this method is best suited to the separation of relatively self-contained stocks of fishes MacKenzie Recovery of internal parasites used as biological tags is enhanced if parasites are associated with a specific anatomical site on the fish.

The decision to use a parasite as a natural mark on fish is determined by calculating the ratio of incidence of that parasite in one fish population to its incidence in another Wydoski and Emery Underwater biotelemetry involves attaching a device that relays biological information via ultrasonic or radio signals from a fish to a remote receiving system Cooke et al.

Radio transmission is practical only in freshwater at relatively shallow depths ASIH et al. The selection of a tag or transmitter and the method and site of attachment or implantation is to be appropriate for the species and size of fish and performed by trained personnel.

Surgical implantation of transmitters into the coelom is common with free-ranging fishes. Use of the smallest and lightest transmitter that provides the desired signal type, strength, and battery lifespan will minimize tag loss and potential effects of transmitter attachment on fish survival, growth, and behavior.

External, neutrally buoyant transmitters have been developed for turbine-passage studies with juvenile salmonids at hydroelectric facilities Deng et al. With fish exposed to rapid pressure changes, external transmitters may decrease the likelihood of injury or death compared to surgically implanted transmitters Brown et al. Techniques to minimize skin irritation should be used following attachment of external transmitters Crook see section 7. The development of techniques employing markers based on chromosome and nuclear DNA polymorphisms has been rapid and continues to evolve.

Benefits have emerged for using DNA marks in selective breeding programs, in evaluating the contribution and effects of stocked species, and in delineating specific habitat requirements for hatchery-produced fish Purdom For managing natural populations, knowing whether the fish species exists as a single genetic unit or relatively genetically distinct groups is critical Beaumont and Hoare An additional incentive for the use of genetic tagging is that adequate tissue samples can be obtained nonlethally e.

Genetic tags are permanent and exist in all individuals, thus representing a good alternative to traditional tags. Prior to the development of DNA techniques for differentiating fish populations, investigators studied allozymes—variant enzyme forms that are coded by different alleles at the same locus or DNA sequence.

This type of genetic analysis sometimes required sacrificing fish to obtain appropriate samples, and with karyotype analysis, the examination of dividing cells was required. Small laboratory fishes such as Japanese Medaka and Zebrafish were used extensively as models for studies in vertebrate developmental genetics and for transgenic investigations Ozato and Wakamatsu Next-generation sequencing technologies rapidly obtain short DNA sequences at thousands of loci, providing a depth of potential for gathering genomic information Mardis Fisheries scientists dealing with such questions will need to update their knowledge of the appropriate, scientifically accepted genetic identification systems for their potential applications Lincoln ; Poompuang and Hallerman Stable isotopes are nonradioactive, naturally occurring forms of chemical elements that do not decay spontaneously and are generally energetically stable.

Stable isotopes of a particular chemical element differ in mass but otherwise have equivalent chemical properties. In contrast to radioisotopes, which are tightly regulated, the use of stable isotopes does not require specially approved facilities and permits. Isotope fractionation has been studied for many years in natural systems, and stable isotope ratios are now used with relative frequency for fish marking.

Stable isotopes can inform studies on trophic food-web structures, feed efficiencies, fish migration and places of origin, contaminant bioaccumulation, and other physiological and ecological processes. A variety of elements e. For obtaining fish tissues, sedation may be required see section 7. Sedatives and Related Chemicals or sacrificing may be necessary.

Depending upon the objectives of the research, nonlethal sampling may be possible by using scales, sectioned fin rays or spines, fin clips, or muscle tissue samples obtained with a small biopsy punch for stable isotope analyses. Sampling of otoliths as metabolically inert structures is also common.

Different types of metabolically active tissues have different elemental turnover rates; therefore, each investigator must determine which tissues may provide materials needed to satisfy the requirements of the studies. Representative information on the use of stable isotopes in animal ecology has been provided by Fry and Rubenstein and Hobson In a manner similar to stable isotopes, fatty acids can be used as biomarkers to identify nutrient pathways in food webs, predator-prey relationships, and the relative contributions of allochthonous remote versus autothonous local inputs.

The use of fatty acids as biomarkers is based on the principle that fishes and many other aquatic organisms are composed of what they have eaten. Once consumed, fatty acids may be catabolized for energy or biotransformed, so the fatty acid profiles within tissues tend to reflect the dietary fatty acid profile.

Some fatty acids cannot be synthesized by vertebrates i. As mentioned for stable isotopes, various tissues have different metabolic turnover rates; thus, to be accurate, efforts linking tissue fatty acid profiles with chronological records of feeding behavior involve validation studies to account for establishing rates of profile change.

For example, phospholipid profiles tend to include certain saturated fatty acids e. Traditionally, muscle and liver tissues have been used for analyses, and sacrificing the animal has been necessary.

However, adipose fin clips have shown utility for such analyses M. For more information on the role of fatty acids in aquatic ecosystems and the use of fatty acids as biomarkers, see Arts et al. Working with live fishes under laboratory conditions requires attention to many details concerning the requirements for, and limits of tolerance of, the particular species under study.

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These students will be exempt from the requirements of the success initiative under the following conditions:. A student who is enrolled in a private or out-of-state institution of higher education and is attending Kilgore College on a temporary basis is not required to take a test for TSI purposes.

All international students who are non-native speakers will be assessed with TSI Assessment. The waiver must be removed prior to the student attempting 15 credit hours of developmental ESOL coursework or attempting entry-level freshman coursework, whichever comes first. Students who have not completed the Texas Success Initiative must see an advisor each semester prior to registration. The advisor will monitor their progress toward completing required developmental coursework and will assist each one with course scheduling.

This plan will be monitored for compliance with state requirements by the Language Development and Mathematics department chairs in conjunction with the Counseling Center and will be updated accordingly.

Payment of tuition and fees entitles the student to admission to classes, copies of transcripts, a subscription to the college newspaper, use of the Student Center facilities, campus health services, and the use of the recreational facilities for students taking eight hours or more.

The college reserves the right to change tuition and fees in keeping with the acts of the Texas Legislature and the KC Board of Trustees. Registration is not completed until payment of tuition and fees is made. A student may make full payment in person by cash, check or money order payable to Kilgore College. Visa, MasterCard, or Discover credit card payments are acceptable upon presentation of the credit card. The student must provide positive identification for any payment to the college.

The college will accept checks for the amount of transaction only. Two-party checks, payroll checks, or postdated checks are not acceptable. Full payments are also available by check or credit card on the Kilgore College website at www. Installment payments are available via the Kilgore College website only. Payment options, including Installment Plans, are available on the Kilgore College website.

A credit card or bank account number is required for payments made via the web. Excessive returned checks will result in suspension of check writing privileges. All monetary holds on student accounts must be paid by cash, money order, or credit card. Texas Education Code Section Guidelines for determining in-district and out-of-district classification are based on the Kilgore College Tax District and policies of the Kilgore College Board of Trustees, and are detailed below.

Tuition is based on residency status and the number of semester hours in which a student enrolls. The following define the types of residency status:. The college will require the student to sign an oath of residency as part of the admission process.

It is the student's responsibility to use the proper residence classification. If there is any question as to right of classification as a resident of Texas or the Kilgore College District, it is the student's obligation, prior to or at the time of registration, to raise the question with the Office of Admissions and Registrar.

The student should report any change in residency status to the Office of Admissions and Registrar before registration. Likewise, a student classified as a non-resident will remain in that status until such time as the student has requested reclassification and the Office of Admissions and Registrar has officially approved the request. Reclassification requests must be initiated by the student.

Residency status changes are not made automatically. For reclassification to be effective for a specific semester, the request for reclassification and any documentation must be submitted to the Office of Admissions and Registrar on or before the official reporting date ORD of the semester.

The student should direct all questions concerning residency status to the Office of Admissions and Registrar, located in the Devall Student Center. Classification as a Texas resident requires that the student substantiate residence in Texas for the immediate twelve months preceding registration. Factors other than time in the state may affect residency classification. For example, the legal home address of a student who is dependent for income tax purposes is considered to be the address of the parent s claiming the student.

Also, students who come to Texas for the purpose of education are ineligible to claim Texas residency for tuition purposes as long as they remain in school. A complete evaluation of individual circumstances is provided at the time of application for admission. Additional information is available from the Office of Admissions and Registrar In addition to the core residency questionnaire, documents acceptable for this purpose may include, but are not limited to, an official Texas high school transcript, the employer's statement of date of employment, lease agreement, a permanent Texas driver's license at least one year old , and a Texas voter registration.

All Texas residents are classified as out-of-district until sufficient information is on file to verify in-district residency. Students who are independent for income tax purposes must establish their own residence in the district. Students who are under age 24 must provide proof of independence. Documents acceptable for verifying in-district residency may include, but are not limited to, a permanent Texas driver's license, a property tax receipt, a lease agreement, and a utility bill.

The KC Board of Trustees has waived the difference between out-of-district resident rates and in-district rates for a person and his or her dependents who own residential real estate in the Kilgore College District. Additional information for required documentation is available from the Office of Admissions and Registrar Fees are subject to change. Chart does not include certain special course fees. In order to receive a refund of tuition and fees, a student must officially drop or withdraw through the Office of Admissions and Registrar.

The college will refund tuition and fees for courses dropped or for withdrawal from school within the timetable published in the online Registration Guide.

Refunds will be issued in the same semester as the withdrawal. A matriculation fee will be charged for students who enroll in courses and then completely withdraw from those courses for a particular semester.

The college will not issue a refund to a student who does not have a clear financial record with the college. Class day is defined as the day the semester or session is designated to begin and each school day thereafter.

The above timetable applies to all refunds, including refunds to early-registered students who withdraw before classes start. No refunds will be made earlier than this schedule. The deposit is separate from the fees for room and board. The refund policy for the deposit may be found in the student handbook. Additional information may be obtained from the Office of Residential Life located in the Devall Student Center or you may reach us at Those students involved in certain programs or athletic teams that require early arrival in the fall semester will have an extended meal plan at a higher rate.

For information on these extended plans, please contact the Office of Residential Life at Fees are subject to change based on increased services made available to residents. Housing fees include room rent, meal plan, and mailbox rental fee.

All residents must purchase the meal plan and the mail box rental. Private rooms are based on availability with priority given to sophomore residents. Room and board fees for summer housing will be announced prior to the end of the spring semester.

Please refer to the Student Handbook for the refund policy for housing. Full payment in person by cash, check or money order payable to Kilgore College. Kilgore College has partnered with Herring Bank to bring our students the convenience of online payments and flexible payment plans.

Installment payment plans are available through College Green Payment Plans. Payment plans must be set-up online with Visa, MasterCard, Discover credit cards or a checking account.

Prior to registration, the student must meet the appropriate admissions requirements explained in the section "Admissions". Students must also resolve any holds that block registration. Registration for classes is necessary for every semester of attendance at KC.

Official days of advisement and registration periods are specified in the "Official College Calendar". Consult the KC website for classes offered and registration information. Registration is complete when the student receives a validated receipt from the Business Office.

Students are required to verify the accuracy of all personal data in registration materials. The college assumes no responsibility for students' credits when students use different names or variations of names during registration.

Kilgore College provides web registration to eligible students via the myKC web portal. See the online Registration Guide for eligibility requirements and web registration details. Students enrolling for the first time, students on academic probation, students with any type of hold, dual credit students, and students with developmental requirements may not web register. Transfer students who have no developmental requirements may web register.

Certain academic programs may require face-to-face registration. Current, returning, and new students are encouraged to register for classes as early as possible. See the online Registration Guide for details. Registration for Continuing Education.

This section contains information about the general academic policies of the college. Students should review this information carefully when they enroll for courses at KC. It is the responsibility of students and faculty to help maintain scholastic integrity at the college by refusing to participate in or tolerate scholastic dishonesty.

Plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty undermine the very purpose of the college and diminish the value of an education. In compliance with FERPA, the college may release to the general public the following types of directory information without the written consent of the student: Name, address, telephone listings 2.

Date, place of birth 3. Major field of study 6. Dates of attendance, awards received, degrees earned 7. Most recent previous educational institution attended 8.

Weight and height of members of athletic teams 9. Participation in officially recognized activities and sports Photographs and other electronic images including audio and video.

By making a written request to the Office of Admissions and Registrar, the student may request that this information be withheld from the public. Students have the right to file a complaint with the U. Complaints should be addressed to:.

Family Policy Compliance Office U. As of January 3, , the U. Department of Education's FERPA regulations expand the circumstances under which your education records and personally identifiable information PII contained in such records - including your Social Security Number, grades, or other private information - may be accessed without your consent. Comptroller General, the U.

Attorney General, the U. Secretary of Education, or state and local education authorities "Federal and State Authorities" may allow access to your records and PII without your consent to any third party designated by a Federal or State Authority to evaluate a federal- or state-supported education program.

The evaluation may relate to any program that is "principally engaged in the provision of education," such as early childhood education and job training, as well as any program that is administered by an education agency or institution. Second, Federal and State Authorities may allow access to your education records and PII without your consent to researchers performing certain types of studies, in certain cases even when we object to or do not request such research.

Federal and State Authorities must obtain certain use-restriction and data security promises from the entities that they authorize to receive your PII, but the Authorities need not maintain direct control over such entities. In addition, in connection with Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems, State Authorities may collect, compile, permanently retain, and share without your consent PII from your education records, and they may track your participation in education and other programs by linking such PII to other personal information about you that they obtain from other Federal or State data sources, including workforce development, unemployment insurance, child welfare, juvenile justice, military service, and migrant student records systems.

This office will not honor a transcript request without the student's signature unless the transcript is being sent to another college for educational purposes.

During peak periods such as during commencement and registration, the student should make transcript requests three weeks in advance. Receiving institutions require official transcripts from each institution a student has attended, even though transfer work may be posted to the KC transcript for reference.

The student must clear all financial and other obligations to the college before the college will release the transcript. Each Kilgore College student enrolled in credit courses beyond the official reporting date of any semester or term establishes a permanent record.

A student's permanent record may include personal and academic information. Student permanent records are housed in the central computer system and in other permanent storage.

The central computer system staff is responsible for the technological maintenance of permanent records, and the Office of Admissions and Registrar staff is responsible for updates to student permanent records. A transcript copy of the permanent record may be obtained from the Office of Admissions and Registrar at no charge. After a semester begins and under certain circumstances, a formerly enrolled student may be reinstated in their semester courses if the student was dropped in error or for not meeting expected deadlines or policies.

Reinstatement is not automatic, and a student seeking reinstatement should visit the Office of Admissions and Registrar to request reinstatement. A Petition for Reinstatement form and applicable supporting documentation will be required. Penalties and fees may apply. The student's classification is based on cumulative hours passed not counting hours currently enrolled.

A student is classified as follows:. This policy applies only to those students who have federal student loans and is only for enrollment certification for student loan requirement. The policy does not apply to any other federal or state grant program at KC. Course credit is based on the semester hour unit. A typical lecture course that meets three times each week during a long semester carries three semester hours of credit while a course that meets more hours during the week or has an assigned laboratory may carry four or more hours of credit.

The second digit in the course number indicates the number of semester hours that a student is granted for successfully completing that course. Transfer of credit from another college or university to KC involves consideration of accreditation, comparability of course work, and applicability of that course work to a KC degree program. Transfer work for students who already have a college degree, or for those not seeking a degree, may not be evaluated.

The college will receive transfer credit from another college or university according to the following guidelines:. Credit for courses in which a passing grade "D" or better has been earned may be transferred to KC from colleges and universities accredited through recognized regional accrediting associations. It is not the policy of the college to transfer credits from any institution not so accredited without documentation that the coursework adequately addresses the student learning outcomes of the comparable KC course and that the instructor meets SACSCOC qualifications for teaching the applicable course s.

The college will consider course work completed at colleges and universities outside the U. Kilgore College students completing courses as a transient student at another institution should provide official transcripts immediately upon completion of the course.

Upon receipt of the official transcript s , the Office of Admissions and Registrar will complete a course-by-course evaluation as needed no later than the end of the first academic term in which the student is enrolled.

Students may view transfer coursework posted to their KC transcript in myKC. If an official transcript s is not received as stated above, the student will not be allowed to enroll in additional semesters until the information is provided.

Transferred coursework may be posted to a KC student transcript for reference, but transfer grades are not included in the KC grade point average calculation. Kilgore College accepts credit earned at other institutions by advanced placement examinations or through experiential learning under the same conditions as credit earned by traditional course work.

Transfer of credit from KC to other colleges and universities is usually accomplished without difficulty. It is the responsibility of the student, however, to determine prior to registration if the courses will transfer. Transfer of specific courses normally depends upon the applicability of the completed work toward a degree plan specified by the receiving college or university.

Therefore, the student should plan any KC program of study to parallel, as nearly as possible, the requirements of the program at the college or university to which the student plans to transfer. A library of catalogs of most colleges and universities to which students might want to transfer is available in the counseling center.

The counseling center maintains course articulation on conversion charts for many Texas institutions of higher learning. These cross-reference charts enable the students to determine the course equivalent at the college or university to which they plan to transfer.

Counseling assistance is available to students who want more information about transferring to another college or university. Senior institutions treat transfer grades in various ways.

While the grade "C" is usually considered minimal for transfer, the specific average required varies with the admissions policy established by the receiving institution.

Some colleges and universities accept "D" grades if the student's overall grade average is "C" or better. Certain institutions require that the student repeat any course in which the student earned a "D" grade; some receive the "I" as an "F" grade. If any student completes the KC Core Curriculum, any Texas college or university is required to accept it in total. If such courses are rejected by the college or the university, KC offers the student tuition-free alternative courses which are acceptable to the college or university.

Special conditions that apply to the guarantee are as follows:. Courses must be identified by the receiving university as transferable and applicable in Kilgore College Articulation Guides dated or later. The catalog of the receiving institution states the total number of credits accepted in transfer, grades required, relevant grade point average, and duration of transferability. The guarantee applies to courses included in a written transfer plan that must be filed with KC.

The plan includes the institution to which the student will transfer the baccalaureate major, degree sought, and the date such a decision was made. Transfer disputes may arise when a lower-division course is not accepted for credit by a Texas institution of higher education. To qualify as a dispute the course s in question must be offered by the institution denying the credit receiving institution , or in the case of upper-level institutions, must be published in a lower-division course accepted for fulfilling lower-level requirements.

For community colleges, the course s must be listed in the Lower-Division Academic Course Guide Manual , and be offered at the receiving institution.

Additionally, the sending institution must challenge the receiving institution's denial of credit. The following procedures shall be followed by public institutions of higher education in the resolution of credit transfer disputes involving lower division courses:. If an institution of higher education does not accept course credit earned by a student at another institution of higher education, the receiving institution shall give written notice to the student and to the sending institution that transfer of the course credit is denied.

If the transfer dispute is not resolved to the satisfaction of the student or the sending institution within 45 days after the date the student received written notice of denial, the institution whose credit is denied for transfer shall notify the Commissioner of Higher Education of the denial. The Commissioner of Higher Education or the Commissioner's designee shall make the final determination about the dispute concerning the transfer of course credit and give written notice of the determination to the involved student and institutions.

Problems that occur during the transfer process will not always be categorized as disputes, and will not follow dispute procedures and guidelines. Problems are clearly within the jurisdiction of the receiving institution.

Students admitted to KC may earn academic credit for learning achieved through experiences that they have completed before enrolling. The college assesses a fee for administering examinations and a fee for posting to the transcript credit awarded. Credit may be awarded toward completion of an Associate of Applied Science degree or a Certificate of Completion for learning achieved through experiences outside typical educational settings when it is consistent with the educational objectives of the student, the requirements of the curriculum, and the policy on granting credit for experiences.

Virtually all credit granted for experience must be validated through a departmental examination. To inquire if an appropriate departmental examination is available, students seeking credit for experience should contact the appropriate division dean. In exceptional cases, as determined by the Division Dean, where credit is awarded without validation through a departmental examination, the request for credit must be supported by official and verifiable documentation.

A minimum of 15 semester hours in residence must be completed before credit is posted and a degree or certificate is awarded. Generally a maximum of 24 semester credit hours may be awarded toward the Associate of Applied Science degree while a maximum of 15 credit hours may be applied toward a Certificate of Completion. The symbol "CR" credit , rather than a grade, will be posted to a transcript.

Generally, the minimum grade equivalent of "C" must be earned on an examination in order for "CR" to be awarded. Unsuccessful attempts are not recorded on the transcripts. Professional certificates, licenses, and credentials such as FAA licenses, real estate licenses, cosmetology licenses, and other recognized credentials.

Learning achieved through proprietary schools, apprenticeship, or other intra-company training. Documentation of the above training must be received before credit will be awarded. Students may earn course credit by demonstrating specified achievement on nationally recognized tests offered through the College Board of New York or through KC departmental examinations.

The College Board Advanced Placement examinations are offered only at selected high schools in May of each year. Additional information concerning credit by examination is available from the Office of Admissions and Registrar, the Testing Center on the Kilgore campus, and the counselor's office at KC - Longview.

The following rules and conditions apply to earning credit by examination and advanced placement at KC:. Credit by examination and advanced placement are available both to incoming students and students currently enrolled. KC will award credit only after the student enrolls at the college and earns 15 credit hours through classroom instruction.

Scores earned on national examinations should be sent to KC. The student must notify the Office of Admissions and Registrar to accept or decline the credit. KC will not award credit by examination for courses in which a student is currently enrolled, courses which a student has previously failed, or courses which are prerequisite to courses for which the student has already earned credit. A student may earn a maximum of 24 credit hours through credit by examination.

An exception to this rule exists where the college awards credit for prior education or training received in an accredited health occupations program. Additional details are provided under "Advanced Placement in Health Occupations". Credit by examination or advanced placement is not applicable toward determination of scholastic standing or academic honors. Likewise, credit hours earned through credit by examination or advanced placement will not satisfy requirements for minimum hours in residence that the student must earn at KC for a certificate of completion or a degree.

The receiving college or university determines transfer of courses earned through credit by examination. KC urges the student to verify transferability with the college or university to which the student intends to transfer.

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