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Was this an option for this model? This one is in used condition but has been well maintained. Should be a lot better and more legitimate. Probably the best playing pocket tuba in the world. I take creatine with some food and use whey after workout but how to use dextrose and maltodextrin:

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Rare Burbank Earl Williams model 6 trombone,. This one was made by Bob Williams, Earl's son. The outer tubes and leadpipe are from a Conn H there is a small patch on the bottom tube. The bell is unstamped but is obviously original to the horn and authentic Williams. As such, price reflects so this is a bargain for a monster playing Williams.

In near factory condition. Get a bargain on this horn. A very nice "L series" Conn 8D professional french horn, raw nickel silver. In very good condition. There is a small patch in the flare shown in photo. The valves have been plated and are sealing well. Includes a leather Marcus Bonna case. A very rare gem of a bass trombone, this instrument was purchased new in and immediately modified by Larry Minick into the configuration you see here.

He built the inline valve section as well as installing an unstamped 62H bell flare that Minick was certain was an improvement over the original bell flare, it was installed and remains on this instrument. The original leadpipe and Minick Leadpipes are included. The valve configuration is inline: It has been used for many years and shows that is has but overall is in very good condition with a lot of life left. This thing is a gas to play, its everything you expect it to be and more.

These rarely show up for sale and I can speculate that the inline Minick bass trombones are fewer than you can count on your hand. Stunning vintage Bach Mt Vernon 50B with inline hangman valves. We built this instrument here at The Brass Ark for one of our clients. The valve section is an inline progressive bore with rose brass tubing. One of the nicest bass trombones we've ever had at the shop.

Included with the instrument is the original MV case no longer fits this wrap and the original single valve parts. Extremely rare jazz trombone made by the legendary trombone builder, Earl Williams. This instrument is one of the earliest stamped model 4 trombones I've seen. It was made at the Los Angeles shop and still has the prominent "williams" trademarks: It was fully restored in by Robb Stewart. Robb fabricated new cork barrels to match the original as well as rotated the inner tubes to extend the life of them.

He also did a nice patch on the original slide crook. It was buffed and relacquered by Robb. This is a stunning trombone and one of the very best jazzers I've ever played. Beautiful lightly used Edwards TE. This one has some unique specs! Comes with three leadpipes and a sterling silver T3 leadpipe.

A very nice Edwards fiberglass lightweight case is included. Here's a nice miraphone model BBb tuba with 4 rotary valves. It has had some repairs and shows cosmetic blems in the lacquer as well as some scratching in the finish.

Nice quality tuba that's functioning as it should. The valve linkages have been upgraded to minibal style. A winter style hardcase with wheels is included.

This is a great deal on a top level professional CC tuba. Overall the instrument is in nice used condition. It does have worn spots through the silver and there are some small dings and dents. It is a very solid player with excellent intonation. The low register has a nice powerful sound that blends nicely in ensemble. Nearly new condition professional double French horn made by Mark Atkinson in Burbank.

It is all nickel silver and has a Kruspe valve wrap. It is a Geyer style wrap with a medium throat bell and built from rose brass. This instrument came directly from Conn and has not been previously owned. It has a cut bell and comes with the original Conn case.

Alexander, a top tier maker. This instrument is gorgeous and has a beautiful descant tone, ultra clear and bright with lots of colors. In overall very good used condition with tight valves. Comes with a cut bell case. A very nice Conn 4H in the rare satin silver finish. Previously owned by Alex Iles of the LA studio scene.

Extremely good player and in very good condition. Here's an Elkhart Conn 6H. It was owned by Alex Iles. There are some dents and some serious slide wear to the inner tubes.

A nice player though it needs some love. Older Yamaha YEP 4 valve euphonium. Previously owned by Alex Iles of the LA studios. This instrument has had a Minick style tuning trigger added on the main slide to help with tuning on the fly. Overall in very good used condition. Professional Jupiter Jazzer trombone, previously owned by Alex Iles.

This model has a. These Jupiter trombones are becoming very popular. This one has a gold brass bell flare and plays well. Hip Jazz trombone developed back in the s with John Fedchock. This particular instrument was owned previously by Alex Iles. It is in nice used condition and ready to play. Somewhat rare, this is a Bach model 36GO, gold brass bell flare and open wrap valve. In very nice condition with case. A great playing instrument that is a versatile size.

Good for symphonic literature as well as commercial applications. Extremely rare bass trombone made by the famous maker, Larry Minick.

This one appears to be a purpose built instrument, in that it wasn't another instrument before like a modified 62H. It has a one piece Minick bell flare, the valves are dependent and also stamped. The J bend tuning slide is prominent in the design and the slide also appears to be custom made.

The valves are tuned as normal in F and D. The leadpipe is press fit, but has corroded and should be replaced. This is a killer instrument and I've only seen a handful ever. A unique opportunity to have one of the most coveted bass trombones in the world.

Made in the mid s in England not a Music Group made Besson , this euphonium has the sweetest sound. I had Brad Close make and install a custom standard large shank mouthpiece receiver so it takes a normal mouthpiece.

Bob Reeves did a full valve alignment. It is very clean, a few small dings and some lacquer scratches. Comes with a nice form fitting hard case. Rare eB alto trombone made by J. Model 3, which is the large bore. I don't know why it works so well, but despite the size of this alto, it doesn't sound like a tenor trombone. Its a fabulous sounding and looking instrument, very high quality craftsmanship. Nickel silver bell garland and nickel slide.

This is a new demo model that was assembled from parts that were shown at a trade show. It looks nearly new with a few small blems in the lacquer. Really a tremendous playing shires. This is an unusual but very special trombone. The model 45 is a special order dual bore small bass trombone.

It has a 9" gold brass bell, open wrap F attachment and narrow width dual bore. This particular instrument was hand assembled from parts at the Bach factory with assistance from Joe Alessi. It has had two owners and is in good condition.

I've not seen another one like this before. Custom made Edwards bass trombone with a s Corporation Bach 50 bell flare. This bass is great, lots of presence and core with a penetrating focused sound.

Tons of clarity with a big open blow and immediate response. Always something special about the Conn 78H trombones. They have wonderful sounds and offer a great amount of versatility. The 78H has a. This one is in fantastic shape and has the desirable gold brass slide tubes. Very clean Bach 36G with convertible valve section you can take the F valve off and make this into a straight trombone, a nifty thing indeed.

Additionally, the valve section has been customized to an open wrap design by Dick Akright in Oakland. Another bonus, a seamed copper Hoelle tuning slide is also included along with the original tuning slide crook.

Alright folks, here's a really unique bass trombone. Pull up a chair, cause here's a story for you. Legend has it that Jeff Reynolds once flattened a Conn Fuchs bass trombone while out jeeping and Larry Minick returned the instrument to playable condition. I have reason to believe that the slide for this trombone is from that original Fuchs instrument. Don Sawday found the bell in the attic of a music shop here in LA many years ago still wrapped in the plastic.

Don acquired the slide from Jeff. I had Don mate these two together, which is the instrument presented here. The slide has new inner tubes and a proper threaded connector now as well as threaded leadpipe receiver. This is a unique horn folks. This horn is a workhorse and has been well used. It is a great player, has a gold brass bell, thayer valve and standard weight slide.

Cosmetically it has been well used but is a very solid playing Bach. Small patch on one of the outer tubes. Talk about being a trumpet hero, this trumpet is all about that. This horn is in great shape with no signs of wear. In very good condition and particularly good looking!

The F valve has had a custom ball and socket linkage upgrade done with improves it a lot. Here's a good deal for a serious trombonist on a budget. This is a Bach 42BO, fairly recent and overall in good shape with the exception of the bell flare, which was damaged and repaired. Whoever did the repair did a poor job and has scarred the flare and thinned the rim bead. As such, this trombone is offered at a bargain price as is. A beautiful trombone we recently refinished here at the shop.

From the mid s and has all the nice features of this great era of vintage Conn trombones. The bell has the deco engraving, tuning slide has the nickel guard and the slide has both bronze outer tubes and thick slide braces. There is some minor wear on the inner tubes. A really gorgeous vintage Conn that plays amazingly well. The technical model number for this instrument is a D and Kanstul hasn't made many of them.

This one is special, as it was ordered in the style of a Bach bass trombone with tuning in the slide. Additionally it has a removable 2nd valve. More cool stuff, it has a harmonic brace installed which lets you fine tune your vibrance with harmonic pillars none included, but you can get some from Edwards in various metals and sizes.

What more can I say. Another killer custom bass trombone, this time based on a King Duo Gravis. It has a vintage DG bell flare with dependent Getzen rotary valves, original King slide with a Bach 50 slide crook. Might be one of the best playing commercial style bass trombones I've ever had at the shop. Also has a harmonic brace installed which fits Edwards harmonic pillars. Another one of a kind single valve bass trombone with a "Bartok" 2nd valve, which lets you extend your F tuning slide on a finger paddle.

The bell flare is a YBL gold brass flare. The valve section is a Shires trubore and the Bartok mechanism was fabricated by Shires. The slide is a B62 standard. In great shape and plays great.

Used Shires Axial "Thayer" valve section with open wrap. The valve casing and core have just been replaced at the Shires factory with new parts, this is a new valve with vintage tubing. Has the original paddle type thumb trigger. Dig this, this trombone was purchased new in and has been only owned by one person and has spent its life here in LA being used professionally.

It is exactly what you'd want in a sterling silver 2B, the right vintage, the right condition and the right provenance. Sure, it has some signs of use, but it is in great shape overall and the character oozing from this horn is exciting. This one has some serious mojo! Absolutely beautiful vintage Bach 37ML trumpet in great shape, with original lacquer which has patina to a nice honey color.

It is in tremendous condition. You'd be hard pressed to find a nice vintage Bach 37 around in my humble opinion. This is a nice bargain tenor sackbut with F extension, good for a player looking to get into the sackbut scene with a quality german made instrument. Appropriate for bass sackbut parts as well because of the valve section. Beautiful vintage Conn 72H bass trombone in excellent condition.

These are the vintage that is most desirable. The outer slide tubes are "bronze" and with thicker stock and oversleeves. The bell engraving is crisp and the rotor valve seals nicely. The 72H is a bell tuning version of the famous 70H bass trombone with tuning in the slide.

The handslide is longer on a 72H to facilitate a low C in tune. The Miraphone contrabass trombone in BBb, complete with giant bell and quad bore slide. This thing is a sound monster. It isn't the easiest thing to play in the world but with some practice you will own the foundation in any brass ensemble, film score or trombone choir.

In very good condition with some minor cosmetic blems. Slide action is decent for 4 slide tubes. This bell section has a newer "dual bore" rotary valve offered from Shires. It is the same valve used on their "Ralph Sauer" model.

Plays great and very even on both sides of the horn. Add a slide and you've got yourself a nice trombone! Very nice lightly used Yamaha Yeo Bass Trombone, dependent valves with removable 2nd valve to convert to a single trigger. The bell was damaged and repaired in shipping transit and has a scar. Otherwise in very good condition. Small ding on valve tubing.

This is a very nice playing trombone and comes with the special order. King 2B Plus trombone, these are a. These are really great playing trombones with a big sound, predictable response and versatile color. Great small bore trombone for players looking for an open blowing jazzer. The 32H is a dual bore. No one makes anything like the 32H anymore. I can't think of a more versatile small bore trombone out there. Works great on mic, in the studio, in a live setting, big band or even principal in the orchestra.

This one is a late s vintage and is from the most desirable period of 32H trombone production. In very good condition, rare to find these with gold brass bell flare and standard weight slide. I've always had a soft spot for the often overlooked Conn 79H.

Most players didn't know that this trombone was available, but I think its one of the very best instruments Conn ever made. There is something special about the bell flares on these instruments and the added bonus of having an F attachment is huge. This one is in very good condition, some minor slide wear and cosmetics from the contact points but overall very clean. This is a no frills instrument but it gets the job done.

Open wrap valve in rose brass, rose brass bell, reversed tuning slide and narrow large bore slide. Great for someone on a budget or a budding young trombonist. Lightly used Shires orchestral tenor trombone with the popular 7YLW bell flare.

Shires Trubore valve section and a TW47 slide. All in excellent like new condition with some minor wear on the valve section and a small dent in the F tuning slide.

Very interesting setup, similar to what Ralph Sauer is using. This is a standard 1Y bell, new Shires rotor valve with open wrap and a lightly used T dual bore slide. The slide has a leadpipe that takes a large shank mouthpiece. This is a great playing trombone, extremely versatile.

Very clean Bach 42BOG trombone. Gold brass bell, open wrap valve and lightweight nickel slide. A solid playing trombone from the early s. Very clean Schmelzer Model 1,. Made in Germany by Manfred Schmelzer, this is a top tier jazzer. This one has a gold plated bell section and nickel slide.

A really tremendous playing Conn Elkhart 8H from the late s. It's spent its life in Las Vegas playing with many of the legends of music. Overall in very nice vintage condition and one of the better playing 8Hs I've had come in.

This is the famous "Burkle" model 32H trombone, named after its designer Jake Burkle. These are incredibly versatile jazzer trombones that are particularly popular among players accustomed to larger bore trombones and looking for an open blowing jazzer that sounds like a jazzer.

The 32H trombone has a. These are fantastic trombones and no one makes anything like it among the modern makers. Chinese made BBb contrabass trombone based on the Miraphone contra, nearly identical specs. Quality on these has certainly improved. Its not in the same league as the original but at a fraction of the cost, certainly gets the job done. This one is in very good condition with a decent hardcore. Beautiful late s Conn 6H with the deco engraving.

These are highly in demand now, and very hard to find with this engraving and in good condition. The lacquer isn't in great shape and might actually come off when I sonic clean this horn, so no guarantees you'll get it with this patina unless I don't clean it. Otherwise very nice condition and a tremendous player. One of the most versatile commercial trombones ever made. It has an open wrap 88H bell section with a. Threaded leadpipes and linkage upgrade on the valve.

Here's a custom made Conn 8H that was assembled for Alan Kaplan. This one has a special order 8" bell flare and a. For the bargain hunters that lurk on the website, here's a very nice playing 36B that isn't going to win any beauty contests. If shiny trombones isn't your thing, this might be the medium bore trombone for you!

This one has an 8" bell,. Just finished an in house restoration on this vintage 88H. Serial dates it to early Texas production. We've just replaced the inner tubes with new ones. Valve has been serviced and the instrument has had all dents removed and it has been relacquered.

It is top notch shape now and is a beauty. We tried a new bell brace design on this one to see how it would turn out and the results are promising. The core is really something special on this trombone. It projects like crazy! As with all our full conversions: New inner tubes, threaded leadpipe receiver, bell voodoo, open wrap oversized valve section, Brassark seamed tenor slide crook and this one gets a seamed copper MV42 leadpipe.

We have about 10 of these out in the world now, and this one is available. Beautiful Giant Alexander BBb tuba with 5 valves. In excellent condition with a Winter hard case. Plays amazing and throws a lot of sound. Some minor cosmetic blems and a few small dings but overall very clean.

A totally unique vintage Holton large tenor trombone with a screw off bell flare. Great for traveling and also just as a darn good trombone. This instrument has a dual bore. This one is in excellent condition with great slide action and no dents. Some minor cosmetic blems in the lacquer. This is an absolutely stunning vintage trombone, all in glorious Conn red brass. This trombone has a. It is a bit front heavy because there is no counterweight but the clean look of the horn is something to behold.

The sound is velvety and beautiful. It looks like it has been relacquered once a long time ago and done very well. The sound this little trombone puts out is nothing short of unbelievable. This is a tremendous playing little sports car.

The model 6vii New York was the most open of all of the model 6 variations and this one is no exception. This trombone has been around, owned by many prominent players and is now up for sale again.

It has small specs: I love the classy look of this beautiful vintage Alexander French Horn. The is the same as the famous model used by tons of hornists around the world. It is all gold brass and the bell is made in the old "gusset" style of fabrication that yields amazingly vibrant bell flares. I think this one is from the late s, guessing from the engraving. It is in fantastic condition and includes the original case.

Here is one of the original Larry Minick tenor trombones made in the s. It features a one piece gold brass Minick bell, the amazing Minick rotary valve with open wrap, Conn 88H style slide with Minick leadpipe as well as a straight neckpipe allowing for a valveless trombone.

This instrument is a formidable orchestral instrument. It has a dense and dark sound quality and really projects amazingly well. The blow is open and free and the rotary valve is excellent, being similar to the Trubore design with a straight port on the open Bb side of the trombone.

Overall in very good condition with no major damage or dents. There are some patches on the handslide covering up worn spots so no holes develop. Comes with a case. I've never seen this before, but this is a Bach C large bore cornet. Ideal for orchestral cornet work and would be awesome on a Soldier's Tale. In fantastic condition with bright silver plate and no signs of wear or dents. Has a bell flare. Terrific sounding rare Bach cornet. A gorgeous Bach large bore Bb cornet, refinished and silver-plated by Zig Kanstul.

Early NY production, all stamps are clear and matching. There is a patch on the back of the main bell bow. Here's a well made, quality German alto trombone that isn't going to break the bank and be fairly easy to learn.

It is a model Challenger in Eb and in good overall condition with some minor dings and cosmetic scratches in the lacquer. It is unlacquered and in overall very good condition. Some signs of use on the contact points and a few small blems here and there. Extremely versatile and mouthpiece specific, smaller mouthpiece sounds commercial and bigger piece gives a great orchestral sound.

Open blow and fast response. Slide action is good but does have some chrome wear. The slide has been widened to accommodate the Thayer valves and larger necks. Very nice used Shires large bore tenor trombone in very good condition. Some minor wear on the slide contact points and the neckpipe. Very clean overall and a solid playing trombone. Has a 1G bell flare which is a gold brass bell with soldered rim on the original shires bell mandrel. An axial thayer valve with open wrap and gold brass tuning slide.

The slide is a TB which dual bore bach style slide. Three leadpipes included, no case. Here's a beautiful playing Bach Mt Vernon model 12 trombone, with a lightened slide work done in the s by a tech in San Francisco. Some minor lacquer wear and scratches. Tubes are all in good shape and seem to be original. Beautiful Bach Mt Vernon model 36, looks like original lacquer.

Slide crook has been off and touched up, looks like gold brass outer slide tubes. The bell is stunning, one of the nicest MV36s I've had come through the shop. Lots of good notes in this one. Stunning Bach Mt Vernon model 36, gold brass bell.

The bell is glorious, the slide is excellent one small spot of wear on the top inner tube with only some minor lacquer wear on the bell from some adhesive residual. Ultra lightly used Greenhoe 88HT-G. This features the thin gauge red brass 88H bell, Greenhoe valve with open wrap and standard. This trombone is in excellent condition and shows little signs of use. A few minor cosmetic lacquer blems but otherwise it is very clean.

Plays extremely well and the valve is even with blow and timbre on both sides of the trombone. These are no longer in production, so get this one while you can.

This is handmade by my good friend Markus in Herzogenrath Germany. It is beautiful to look at and hear, as well as play. A used friendly bass sackbut this is one of the best "bangs for your buck" you can get info for a high quality professional level instrument.

This one has 3rd position bell to slide relationship. Very nice Shires large bore orchestral tenor trombone with some nice modifications. This is set up to play similar to a vintage 50's Conn 88H trombone, so if you are a fan of those instruments but looking for something a bit more modern and open blowing this trombone could be right up your alley. The bell is a 2RVET7 flare, which means conn taper red brass bell with thin rim wire and unsoldered bead.

The valve section is a standard Shires rotary with open wrap. The slide is a TW47, wide style. You'll notice that the previous owner had a tuning slide bow guard installed on both the main and F attachment tuning slides ala s 88H style. This is an extremely good playing trombone with a beautiful vibrant and focused sound with a lot of warmth and depth. Here's a lightly used Miraphone BBb tuba, model , about 5 years old. It has been well maintained and is very clean, showing a few small dents and some minor cosmetic wear.

The is maybe the most popular BBb tuba in the world, used by students and professionals for its versatility and ease of playing.

Is that a fact? How long does your program recommend a single training session? Or does this depend on your body type etc etc?? And yep, you can become fat by eating tons of calories — whether from protein, fat or carbs — so becoming fat from protein, while unlikely, is possible. Check out this study. There are many factors at play here though, including our training, our bodytypes and our goals.

A home gym is great! The issue I run into when lifting and drinking supplements is that my body looks fine but I start putting on alot of weight in my face. Check this allergic reaction out ahaha. Hard to say without knowing more. Great site and great article. Prior to the injury I did p90x and classic power lifting techniques. P90 killed my back with the plyometrics. It sounds as though some of the complex movements ie squats, powerlifts would put a lot of strain on my injured disc. Do you guys have other excersises you could recommend that would be more safe with my ailment?

I was planning on doing leg press instead of squats, but it doesnt seem to be as much of a complex movement. Thank you so much and again great job. The video hit home. Exercises like deadlifts, done correctly and with care, can often work magic on back health. I would recommend getting your back checked out by an expert and seeking out a solution that sees it getting stronger. I believe the order was fulfilled by NOW. I think Amazon may have stopped selling it themselves so you couldnt get it via prime.

Checked the NOW website and their still selling it. They replaced it with Maltodextrin. I just updated it to their new product: Dextrose, if you can find it, is still a totally valid option though. With the training drink what do you suggest a double dose or your suggested triple dose? Most of us, once we start training and eating well, can pack on muscle at alarming rates.

I am very interested into your mid workout drink — did i read it was calories! I am 6ft2 and pounds and my strength has been increasing however I know that my calorie intake is no where near bulk stage.

I find it difficult. What makes your mid workout shake so high calories and do you need an post workout shake after it? When doing a single dose you can do it right before, during or right after working out. Yeah … not consuming enough calories is something most of us skinny guys struggle with. This is one creative way of helping to solve that problem.

I hope it helps you man, good luck! Having a solid protein intake is likely more beneficial for guys who are still growing, if anything. Getting most of your protein from whole foods though, since whole foods are higher in vitamins and minerals, is still a good idea. Yes, thanks a lot my older brother has a jar of whey protein I might use that in a couple months after I develop more muscle at least. Thx for super posts. Even considering IGF, which is last resort for a lady.

I would trust your doctor for advice on that one. Keep in mind that if your goal is a very lofty one, that it takes more time, effort and sacrifices to reach it! Shane, It truly does help. Are you recommending malodextrin in the training drink, or dextrose, or are those terms somewhat interchangeable?

Great advice, looking forward to giving this a try! Gah — we just switched the above link to maltodextrin. Forgot to switch it everywhere, I suppose. Hey Shane, nice article. I am a 5ft10 ectomorph that weighed lbs. I started training in mid January this year and since then I have managed to gain 20lbs. Mostly through eating lots of whole foods and upping my calorie intake and incorporating compound lifts bench press, barbell squat, deadlift, chin ups and t-rows into my training plans following your advice.

Just wanted to throw a recommendation out to any other UK people that myprotein. Mixed up the double dose slightly concerned about the triple dose making me fat and it tasted good! Either I have weird taste buds, or these products seem to go together well.

Can you shoot me details of the payment plan, if there is one? Your results are awesome! Our Australians have been buying ground up oats instead of maltodextrin, for example, and our Germans are getting dextrose from DIY beer breweries for unbelievably cheap.

Is it safe to drink 50g whey protein, g maltodextrin, 10g creatine and 5g glutamin mixed with ml in one serving? Do you mean from a hydration standpoint? I would recommend drinking plenty of water. Maybe that means bringing a water bottle with you. We have water fountains at our gym, so if we make a particularly hearty concoction we also mix in some sips of water. My body is out of proportion. My arms are so skinny and always have been and I have NO chest and my stomach is fairly flat, not much really going on, so I know that if I can do things right, I could end up getting a pretty decent body.

As for now, it seems like the bottom half of me doesnt match the top. So I spoke to friends, watched endless youtube videos on workouts and diets and read endless articles. Money right now is a bit of an issue so the gym was a no no.

The first 2 months went ok, a lot of different variations of push-ups and squats, changed my diet, started eating a lot more, I noticed some kind of improvement in muscle size but in weight I have no idea as I have no scales in my apartment to keep a check. So right now I find your site and all this great advice and all these questions with great responses and I feel like I can get some genuine great advice now.

So first I wanted to ask about the supplements. How many calories should I be consuming daily and how often do you think I should be eating? Any response would be greatly appreaciated as I am so clueless about what I really should be doing and how! Hey Sambo, thanks for taking the time to write us! None of these supplements are necessary no, and regular whole food has a whole bunch of advantages too, like being unprocessed and packed full of micronutrients.

These supplements may be cheaper than food, so in theory they should help you save money though. Calisthenics working out using your body weight is cool, and you can make muscle gains at first. At a certain point the exercises become too easy, and it becomes less about strength and more about endurance. You can be constantly making things more difficult having someone push down on your back, doing explosive clap pushups, etc but it quickly becomes complicated, and often takes a lot of athleticism handstand pushups, say.

With weights you can constantly be increasing the heaviness, resulting in progressively bigger muscles as your strength increases — much simpler and more reliable. But, as you probably know, sometimes the cheaper route comes with more challenges. How much should you be eating? Enough for your weight to increase! There are some advanced ways of figuring that out, like what we use with our members, but you can often get a rough idea by taking your weight and multiplying it by Hey, ha thanks for the reply, I realised after that the last message was an essay!

By the way I forgot to say before, that video is very impressive and really sold me and if I was in a better financial situation right now I would sign up. Just wanted to ask for your opinion on using waxy maize starch as opposed to dextrin or maltodextrin in post-workout shake.

I started with creatine a couple of months back as per your suggestion and have noticed gains in my lifting capacity but not so much of muscle gain. I am now looking to gain some big ass muscle and hence have a few questions..

How effective are the gainers available in the market? Are they really effective? What is the best gainer out there in the market which is really helpful for ectomorphs like us? How much of it should be taken per day? Is 1 scoop after breakfast and 1 after workout enough or should i be taking more? Hey Sushant, glad you got some gains man! Does that make sense? I agree with what other people are saying.

Some other favourites of mine are: Still not as good as making your own though. As for how much you should consume to grow? But your overall intake should be enough for you to gain weight on the scale and improve on your strength in the gym.

Surrounding training though you can take advantage of a pretty potent advantage that nutrient timing offers. Would it be possible, especially increase my arm size. You should get started soon though!! However, if I wanted to workout 4 times a week, do you think there would be any negative high calorie effects associated with taking that many calories?

My understanding of the health component of consuming a lot of calories is that it depends on where those calories are going. What a great article, I love the fact that you use research studies to back up your claims. Your photos are also a great testament to your hard work. How gluten free friendly are you guys? I eat a ton of beans and plenty of potatoes. Lots of guys eat tons of rice and quinoa. Pizza and pasta have never been big favourites of mine even from a taste perspective.

What dosages do you reccomend for me personally? Very good article though. I was re-reading the article and was wondering, do I mix 90g of protein, g of carbs, and 15g of creatine also or triple it so it would be g of protein, grams of carbs and 45g of creatine?

Would I mix the 3, drink it before, after or during my workout? When would I have to drink the fish oil? I would start with 30g whey protein and 60g maltodextrin. If that goes well and it comes time to increase, then up it to 60g whey protein and g maltodextrin.

Hey man, I started taking 2 2. I know that creatine has a unique relationship with water but if i have a lot of water, will i flush the creatine out of my system when i go to the bathroom?

You want to take in a bit more than you need for that reason. What is the best dosage for the NutraSea Fish oil? Just pour into a tspoon and consume once a day? Yep, consuming once a day is perfect. Or are you just using water in your shakes? Are there any advantages or disadvantages to using milk instead of water?

Milk is a surprisingly potent workout drink, considering how ridiculously slowly we digest it! It has a lot of muscle-building benefits built into it, since there are so many rad vitamins and minerals in there, alongside a great source of protein.

You may dig this article, too: I have a very limited budget so I would just like to ask if buying creatine and whey protein will be enough? Or should I buy whey protein and fish oil isntead? I am a beginner when it comes to working out so forgive me for this question. I also read that there are harmful side effects when using fish oil, are those claims true?

You can certainly ask your doctor though! I would also get kidney stones.. Or bowel movement would stop or go crazy if you get what I mean lol..

You think this program can help me. Almost all of us run into our share of mishaps, struggles and challenges with this stuff—I know I did!

Yes, I think our program could help. We take a pretty methodical approach to this and the goal is to make you even more resistant to injury, not set you up for it.

You may want to get clearance to do squats and deadlifts again, too. You may find value in this article, too: On non-lifting days I try to eat as much whole nutritious food as possible. When it comes to starches my go-to favourites are: There are tons of options out there—another big favourite for a lot of healthfully-minded dudes is quinoa. Do you consume the same amount of supplement servings on your rest days as well, or is it only on workout days?

Are there any alternate body building supplements without Creatine, because doctor suggested me not to use because. Creatine is not suitable for me. And fish oil is still a great addition to your daily nutrition. However, the protocol seems a little scary.

What do you suggest? I was thinking of going for whey protein first. But would that not add a lot of gains? I hope I converted that right. I wanna gain muscles so bad.. I went through the comments and i hope that you reply on the few ones on top. That will clear out and help me a big time. Hey Sultan, I try to answer every single question! Do i have to take creatine dosage plus add creatine it to my drink for workout day or the drink is enough?

The workout drink is more than enough creatine for the day! Hi Shane my name is Ryan, I just so happened to stumble across one of your articles a couple hours ago and since then have thoroughly enjoyed most of what your website has to offer. Must say very impressed! A lot has changed since high school, I am 20 years old now and 5 months away from shipping out for basic training for the military cant enlist until braces are off.

Now couple years later terrible diet, virtually no excersise, and no supplements. I am 6foot 1 and pounds. Not chubby at all but def fat has hidden my 6 pack away: As I said I have a few months to jump back on board and I am dead serious about getting in the best shape of my life.

I just bought YMCA membership and signed up for swimming lessons. I want to bulk up with some serious muscle mass and burn some of this 22 percent body fat and get it back down to healthy level.

Or will I need to make adjustments? Most people need to make some adjustment or another, as everyone is a little different. Yep, the workout shake will still work. Just stick with a single dose—for now at least.

Hope you decide to join us man! What would you suggest? We live in Toronto too. Seems like a great place to train at! Fish oil timing is one of those cases. This program sounds awesome! And man, looking at this site just makes me so excited to join and try! Thanks for the heads up Oliver!

Hey Shane, thanks for your reply. I noticed that you have updated the links, but not all of them. The ones of whey protein and Maltodextrin are still invalid. Do you mean what do we mix the powders with? Some of our guys use milk though and use a bit less whey and maltodextrin so that it has the same overall nutrient breakdown. I only weigh 47kg. Can you please suggest me a good one. They seem to be broken right now, as bodybuilding.

Sorry for the confusion! So which one will give me better result. Still working on it! Hi Shane, thanks for the great post here. The info you guys provide has been very helpful in my quest to gain weight. I just started using the fish oil that you have recommended thanks for the links and you were right, this stuff is really quite easy to take. However, I just read a study which links omega 3s to a higher risk of prostate cancer.

I was wondering if you have read this study yet? I figured I will talk to my doctor about this one before continuing with the omega supplements. Oh man that study has been making waves! Interestingly enough, fish oil actually reduces your chance of getting prostate cancer in several other ways: Aaaaand keep in mind that MOST studies still show that consumption of omega 3s reduces your risk of prostrate cancer!

The media is always coming out with sensational stuff like this, as this new research is shock worthy and increases readership. Thanks Shane, what a great article! As a ectomorph struggling to put on weight this is very helpful. I was going through the comments and must appreciate the fact that you take the time to answer all questions your readers have. Most of my doubts got clarified as I went through your answers.

No problem Misha, glad it helped! And this post is broscience all the way. Just eat and lift heavy. My legs could use a lot more work though. I looking to gain another 10 to 15 pounds of muscle.

I train for strength as well for definition. You may not be a hardgainer at all, just a poor eater! You sounds like a good fit for this program, yeah. We can definitely bulk up the stilts, and nothing will do a better job of giving you a strong balanced physique than squats and deadlifts! Hey Shane, what is your opinion on oatmass as an alternative to maltodextrin? Or, rather, blended oats, as they are essentially the same, right?

This stuff is working! However, Ive gained unwanted fat in my middle section, and thighs, where that was never happening in the past. I weigh now around lbs. I still appear skinny to most, but I may be average. Do youvthinkbthos program is right for me? Most guys have a bit of this or that mixed in, often in the form of carrying a little bit extra around the middle hehe. Now, here comes the problem: Does you guys or any one of your clients ever got ANY stretch marks on your skin due to rapid muscle building?

A lot of us ectomorphs have stretch marks from growing UPwards though. A lot of us take to puberty by rapidly shooting sky high instead of getting muscular, it seems.

It awes me how much you guys are into this for us, ectomorphs. The past two weeks I merely stood at my current weight. I want to have the leanest possible bulk ever cutting being an ectomorph? I know what you mean. By super leanly bulking you can always maintain your strength of being lean while adding on the new strength of being strong and healthy.

You need to gain weight to grow, so a calorie surplus is your friend! I like to track using the vein on my bicep. I take creatine with some food and use whey after workout but how to use dextrose and maltodextrin: Shane, I read that you use 15g of Creatine when you try to gain some weight. Is this true or is our maximum of creatine as being an ectomorph much higher? Yeah I used to take 15g of creatine spaced out over a couple hours.

Some creatine might have been flushed out, yeah. Hey Shane I wanted to know other than the days im working out and making that double dose shake, should i be having just a regular whey protein shake the days im off? And is having all that protein healthy for you?

Universal Torrent is a pretty good gainer, although once you start having several servings at once the cost quickly adds up! The maltodextrin they load the stuff with costs them pennies and costs you several dollars. I figure may as well just buy it yourself, mix your own perfect ratio, and save a bit of money. Can trim the doses down and fiddle with things if you ever decide to cut or anything.

Getting your protein from a variety of sources is best, and yep whey protein is a totally valid place to get it. I get more than enough there. Can you refresh the links of the lists of supplements please. Thanks in advance for your reach article that helps me a lot. Lets say will I have to increase my protein intake overtime?

And I also read that your body absorbs about 25g of protein in an hour so what would be the point of doubling your protein intake if it would all be converted into waste? I am looking forward to stop drinking Gatorade as it contains quite a lot of sugars, and buy maltodextrin instead as it looks much healthier, thank you Shane for your time and keep it up!

Your site is great. Thanks for the kind words Juan! Comments like yours are why I love writing blog articles so much. Gold Standard is sweet. ON is a good company. Bananas are sweet too, and a great source of vitamins and minerals as well as being a good source of carbs. I think Gatorade is made out of sucrose, which contains fructose. Fructose is absorbed very differently from glucose and not necessarily in a beneficial way.

Not the best thing to be taking in high doses while training. I mean bananas have so many amazing things going for them. If you like the flavour of Gatorade, you could try adding a scoop of Xtend to your drink.

You can buy flavouring like citric acid separately too. Yep, you can develop an intolerance from eating too much of anything, really! If your body can only absorb 25g of protein in an hour then drinking more than 25g of whey in an hour will just mean that it takes longer than an hour to digest all of the protein!

If we just peed calories out if we ate them too fast that would be the best news ever for chubby guys and gals, who, presumably, could eat entire cakes just fine so long as they ate them quickly enough. I use a protein shaker 20oz. You could drink 1 in the change room beforehand, 1 in the gym and 1 after. Thanks Shane for all the help and advice. Can i make this with milk or is the taste not gonna be as good? Also how much milk would you use if you use 28 oz of water?

You could probably make it with milk so long as you feel good while drinking it. Could be that fat soluble vitamins, like vitamin D, work better in whole fat milk. Shane im sure you answered this somehwere but since carbo gain doesnt have a scoop how do you measure out a serving size?

Or how many scoops would i use if i used the scooper from the gold whey box. The tub should have nutrition information on the side … but who weighs their food? Right now Jared and I are trying waximaize maltodextrin is way more enjoyable — waximaize seems to be the twin of corn starch and it came with a scoop. And can you help me choose the best creatine brand? Dextrose tastes like milk sugar, and waximaize tastes like cornstarch — up to your taste buds!

Might be better for the teeth, too? Have it right after you finish your workout. That will double the dose and give you some extra calories and extra protein to play around with.

No need to double the creatine, although you could! I am 17 years of age. I know eating more and being beastlier in the kitchen is easier said than done, so just take it day by day and try to build up progressively better and better habits! After all your gains, do you still take supplements? I mean, when people reach their goals in terms of bodyweight, do they stop taking supps easily? I ask because in my country supps are overtaxed, so I see it as an investment, instead of a cheaper alternative to food.

I stress constantly about it, and I just been thinking about anything that could help me with building muscle drug-free is a go, so supplements are my first choice. Buuut… people become hostage to this shit. I wonder if it would be possible to drop naturally, with ease, them once I packed those 20 lb. Would you guys mind telling me a little about your thoughts and experiences?

I used to wonder that all the time myself. Ergogenic supplements SuperPump, NO xplode, jack3d, etc: I felt like I went from being superman to a weak old man when I stopped training with them. The homemade ones are very cheap, and, for MOST people, cheaper than their whole food equivalents. You can accomplish your gains and then use very minimal dosages or stop using them entirely.

Gainers QuickMass, Serious Mass, etc: Kind of useless to begin with and massively overpriced. Food replacements, like whey protein: Stuff like fish oil you might want to take forever. Stuff like vitamin D is tricky to get naturally, as you need to be outside a lot to encourage your body to synthesize enough of it.

Most people need to supplement with it or drink milk, which is fortified with it. Anyway, the short answer to your question is no: If nutritious whole food is cheaper and more accessible for you and you have the appetite to eat it then you could forget about supplements altogether! Good luck gaining your final 20!! Supplements are still cheaper than most whole foods, but not as cheap as you might think. It is still cheaper taking malto than buying whole food price per calorie , but in the specific case of whey and pre-wo, they are way off the range.

Yeah, that helped a lot! So, did you stop taking supps entirely now that you reached your final weight? I really like it, and I like having goals to work towards. I still take supplements. It sounds like things are different where you live — I do know that food in Canada is expensive relative to other countries — but whey here in Toronto is muuuch cheaper than, say, chicken breasts, steak or ground meat. If you call it a supplement I also absolutely adore coffee!

I have a nice hot mug before pretty much every workout and love it pretty heartily. As for your creatine questions: Not everyone gets water retention from creatine. All the extra muscle you built while on it … that will stay. How much lean mass can you expect to gain? I went in an added a bunch of studies to the creatine section today. Well, that was the original plan. To be completely honest, I did take around g of malto after workout days for a few weeks and gained some weight.

Not that much, though, never passed on my max weight. Maybe 1 or 2 lbs. VERY slowly, way slower than I would see elsewhere. One thing is the scale moving slowly, other thing is the scale not moving at all! Had problems with whey concentrate, might try isolate. Focus on moving up your weight on the scale each week instead i. Now that you have my info, my questions: Do you recommend otherwise, and how many servings per day and when is the best time?

Please mention the creatine servings too. In an instant, r-process fusion occurs. When a star becomes a supernova, those heavy elements are sprayed into the galactic neighborhood by a stupendous release of fusion energy.

Over the subsequent eons, gravity will cause the remnants of stars, and hydrogen that had not yet become a star or did not fuse within a star, to coalesce into an accretion disk , and a new star with its attendant planets will form. The Sun will take more than ten billion years to live its life cycle before becoming a white dwarf. Large stars burn much more quickly and can become supernovas after as little as ten million years of main-sequence burning.

The accretion disk from which the Sun and its planets were formed appeared in a relatively short time, and the disk was originally a molecular cloud that may have been disturbed by an exploding star. A "local" exploding star likely provided the bulk of our solar system's matter, and the entire mess gravitationally collapsed into the disk.

In a mere 50 million years after formation, the Sun became compressed enough to initiate the sustained fusion that still powers it and will for several billion more years. Those that began their lives inside the frost line were rocky, and those outside the frost line were generally comprised of lighter elements.

Those planetesimals bombarded the forming planets and increased their mass. Other planetesimals were ejected from the solar system as the gravity of the Sun and planets whipped them around. Venus and Mars were also bombarded with the lighter elements and may have plentiful water long ago, but only Earth retained its water. The biggest colli sion between Earth and its neighbors may well have created the Moon , and although the currently prevailing hypothesis has plenty of problems, the other hypotheses have more.

At this time, dark energy and dark matter have never been observed. Any theory that relies on unobserved phenomena is going to be highly provisional, and I consider it unlikely that the prevailing cosmological theories a century from now will much resemble those of today. The scale of the universe, from its largest to smallest objects, is truly difficult to imagine, and this animation can help provide some perspective. The scale of geologic time strains human brains with its immensity.

The journey of life on Earth has been greatly affected by geophysical and geochemical processes as well as influences from beyond Earth, such as:. It seems to me, however, that geophysical and geochemical processes are understood better and have more robust data than many other areas of science, so geophysics and geochemistry are areas where I expect fewer radical changes than others.

Maybe that is because it is neither too big nor too small and closer to our daily reality than distant stars or what is happening inside atoms. Tectonic plate movements can alter the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. Tectonic plates can collide, such as the collision of India into Asia , which formed the Himalayan Mountains and raised the Tibetan Plateau. That may have contributed to the ice age that we currently experience, although other studies indicate that the carbon removal may have been more due to the burial of organic matter.

The debate is continuing as the complex dynamics are subjected to scientific investigation. It is already nearly PPM and rising fast. Ultrav iolet light breaks water vapor into hydrogen and oxygen.

Scientists believe that that happened to Venus and Mars, although Venus may have never cooled enough to form liquid water; it split in the atmosphere and hydrogen then escaped to space.

On Earth, that hydrogen liberated by ultraviolet light reacts with atmospheric oxygen and turns back into water before it can escape into space. Photosynthesis led to atmospheric oxygen, which led to the ozone layer that helped prevent the splitting of water, and atmospheric oxygen recaptured hydrogen that would have otherwise escaped to space, which prevented the oceans from disappearing, which probably led to plate tectonics, which led to the formation of granitic continents , which led to land-based life.

In short, life made Earth more conducive to life. That is the most important impact of life on geophysical and geochemical processes, but far from the only one; others will be explored in this essay. Geology in the West is considered to have begun during the Classic Greek period , and Persian and Chinese scholars furthered the discipline during the medieval period.

There is a constant upwelling of mass from the mantle, riding those energy currents. Three bya, the continents may have only had about a quarter of the mass that they do today. The granites formed when basalt was exposed to water , and the process partly replaced heavier iron with lighter sodium and potassium.

Water also became incorporated into the rocks, generally where the heavier oceanic crust was subducted below the lighter continental crust. Those tectonic plates have been likened to the surface of a pot of boiling oatmeal. Plates can collide and form mountains, and they can pull apart and expose the hot interior, which spews out in volcanism at the edges of tectonic plates , including ridges in the oceans.

The mantle is thought to be mostly oxygen and silicon, and the remainder is largely composed of the lighter alkali and alkaline earth metals, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium. Those mantle metals are primarily bound in oxides. The crust also is almost solely comprised of oxides. Land-based biomass is about times greater than ocean-based biomass. Life as we know it seems to be rare and delicate, found nowhere else in our solar system so far, and few places seem promising for it to exist.

Earth rec eives less than one-billionth of the energy that the Sun produces. That infinitesimal proportion captured by photosynthesis is the basis for nearly all life on Earth. Planets with weak magnetic fields, such as Mars, are believed to be vulnerable to the solar wind stripping away their atmospheres. If Earth did not have a magnetic field, its ozone layer may have been stripped away , which may have led to the extinction of complex life on Earth, if it would have ever appeared at all.

The fact that complex life exists on Earth seems to be a miracle of circumstance. A naked human would not have survived for a minute on the Hadean Earth. The Moon was probably created during the Hadean Eon when a planet-sized mass collided with Earth.

Appearance of life on Earth , and its energetic basis Role of DNA , enzymes , ATP , and membranes Basic aspects of life Biochemistry , geochemical cycles , and entropy Respiration and photosynthesis Split of bacteria and archaea Oxygenic photosynthesis Formation of the continents, plate tectonics Great Oxygenation Event , and formation of the iron deposits , the first ice age , and formation of the ozone layer Development of the complex cell and its energy centers - the mitochondria - and mitochondrial DNA Development of aerobic respiration Free radicals and cell death Formation of supercontinents Evolutionary struggles , the appearance of plants , sexual reproduction , grazing , and predation One-way path of evolution Above a ll else, life is an energy acquisition process.

All life exploits the potential energy in various atomic and molecular arrangements, or captures energy directly, as in photosynthesis. Early life ex ploited the potential energy of chemicals. The chemosynthetic ideal is capturing chemicals fresh to new environments that have yet to react with other chemicals. The currently most-accepted hypothesis has life first appearing on Earth about 3.

Life had to be opportunistic and quick in order to capture that energy before other molecules did. When life first appeared on Earth, the evolutionary process that led to humanity began. The USA's population has more doubt about evolution than any other Western nation , and that is primarily because Biblical literalism is still strong here.

In all other Western nations, there is virtually no controversy over evolution being a fact of existence, and those nations view the controversy over evolution in the USA with befuddlement. Many molecules with the same atomic structure can form mirror images of themselves. That mirror-image phenomenon is called chirality.

In nature, such mirror images occur randomly, but life prefers one mirror image over the other. In all life on Earth, proteins are virtually without exception left-handed, while sugars are right-handed. All other lineages died out the likely answer, and there was probably hundreds of millions of years of evolution on Earth before LUCA lived , or they may have all descended from the same original organism.

As we will see, this is far from the only instance when such seminal events are considered to have probably happened only once. Also, the unique structure of DNA and many enzymes are common to all life, and they did not have to form the way that they did. That they came through different ancestral lines is extremely unlikely. The critic al feature of earliest life had to be a way to reproduce itself, and DNA is common to all cellular life today.

The DNA that exists today was almost certainly not a feature of the first life. If w e think about activation energy at the molecular level, it is the energy that crashes molecules into each other, and if they are crashed into each other fast enough and hard enough, the reaction becomes more likely. But that is an incredibly inefficient way to do it. Proteins make the process far easier, and those proteins are called enzymes.

Enzymes speed up chemical reactions and they do it as in the above analogy but as if a person entered that room, picked up the key, and inserted it into the lock. That took far less effort than shaking up the room a million times. Enzymes are like hands that grab two molecules and bring them into alignment so that the key inserts into the lock.

The lock-and-key analogy is the standard way to explain enzymes to non-scientists. Life would never have grown beyond some microscopic curiosities without the assistance that enzymes provide. Almost a ll enzymes are proteins, which are generally huge molecules with intricate folds.

The animation of human glyoxalase below depicts a standard enzyme author is WillowW at Wikipedia , and the zinc ions that make it work are the purple balls. Enzymes lo ok like Rube Goldberg-ish contraptions when their function is considered: Proteins have a four-level structure , and the second level is held in place by hydrogen bonds. An enzyme can catalyze millions of reactions per second. Adenosine triphosphate "ATP" is a coenzyme used to fuel all known biological processes.

The human body produces its own weight in ATP each day. Cyanide kills by disabling a key enzyme that produces ATP, which induces an energy shortage at the cellular level.

There are two primary aspects of life, and what can be observed in human civilization are often only more complex iterations of those aspects, which are:. Life harnessed energy so that it could manipulate matter to create itself;.

Life created information so that it could reproduce itself. Entropy is another important concept for this essay. Entropy is, in its essence, the tendency of hot things to cool off. The concept is now introduced to students as energy dispersal. Even though science really does not know what energy is , it can measure its effect.

At the molecular level, entropy is the tendency of mass to become disordered over time, as the random motion of molecules spreads in collisions with other molecules, until the interacting molecules have the same temperature.

Life had to overcome entropy in order to exist, as it brought order out of disorder and maintained it while alive, and it takes energy to do that. The prevailing theory is that net entropy can only increase, and life has to create more entropy in its surroundings so that it can reduce entropy internally and produce and maintain the order that sustains itself. Of those key elements necessary for life as we know it , the most diverse is carbon, with that half-filled outer electron shell.

Carbon can form one, two, three, and four bonds with itself and so forms the most diverse bonds with itself of all elements, and an entire branch of chemistry is devoted to carbon, called organic chemistry. Organic molecules are by far the largest known to science. In the eyes of an organic chemist, burning fossil hydrocarbons to fuel our industrial world is like making Einstein dig ditches or making Pavarotti wash dishes for a living. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the most vital elements for life after carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

In its pure state in nature, nitrogen, like hydrogen and oxygen, is a diatomic molecule. Hydrogen in nature is single-bonded to itself, oxygen is double-bonded, and nitrogen is triple-bonded. Because of that triple bond , nitrogen is quite unreactive and prefers to stay bonded to itself.

In nature, nitrogen will not significantly react with other substances unless the temperature activation energy is very high. Also, some bacteria can fix nitrogen directly from atmospheric nitrogen, but it is an energy-intensive operation that uses the energy in eight ATP molecules to fix each atom of nitrogen.

For the earliest life on Earth, nitrogen would have been essential, and some nitrogen is fixed at volcanic vents , where life may have first appeared. It has held that dominant status for billions of years.

Carbon dioxide, on the other hand, has been generally decreasing as an atmospheric gas for billions of years, and has consistently declined for the past million years. The geochemical process is like nitrogen's in that atmospheric water combines with carbon dioxide to form a weak acid, which then falls to Earth in precipitation. But carbon is in the same elemental family as an abundant crustal element: Carbon replaces the silicon in crustal compounds and turns silicates into carbonates in a process called silicate weathering.

More carbon di oxide was removed from the atmosphere by those processes than was reintroduced to the atmosphere by volcanism and other processes. When life first appeared, it was single-celled and simple, and such organisms are called prokaryotes today. Below is a diagram of a typical prokaryotic cell. The diagrams used in this chapter are only intended to provide a glimpse of the incredible complexity of structure and chemistry that takes place at the microscopic level in organisms, and people can be forgiven for doubting that it is all a miraculous accident.

I doubt it, too, as did Einstein. Prokaryotes do not have organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, and nuclei, but even the simplest cell is a marvel of complexity. Cellular division would be an amazing sight. The so-called tree of life at the microbe level better resembles a web. In the earliest days of life on Earth, it had to solve the problems of how to reproduce, how to separate itself from its environment, how to acquire raw materials, and how to make the chemical reactions that it needed.

The earliest process of skimming energy from energy gradients to power life is called respiration. That earliest respiration is today called anaerobic respiration because there was virtually no free oxygen in the atmosphere or ocean in those early days.

Predation was then born. Photosynthesis may have begun 3. Bacteria are true photosynthesizers that fix carbon from captured sunlight. Archaeans cannot fix carbon via sunlight capture , so are not photosynthesizers, even those that capture photons.

The scientific consensus today is that a respiration cycle was modified, and a cytochrome in a respiration system was used for capturing sunlight. Intermediate stages have been hypothesized, including the cytochrome using a pigment to create a shield to absorb ultraviolet light, or that the pigment was part of an infrared sensor for locating volcanic vents.

But whatever the case was, the conversion of a respiration system into a photosynthetic system is considered to have only happened once , and all photosynthesizers descended from that original innovation. Metals used by biological processes can donate electrons, unlike those other elements that primarily seek them to complete their shells. Those metals used by life are isolated in molecular cages called porphyrins. The cycles that capture energy photosynthesis or chemosynthesis or produce it fermentation or respiration generally have many steps in them, and some cycles can run backwards, such as the Krebs cycle.

The respiration and photosynthesis cycles in complex organisms have been the focus of a great deal of scientific effort, and cyclic diagrams 1 , 2 can provide helpful portrayals of how cycles work. Photosynthesis has several cycles in it, and Nob el Prizes were awarded to the scientists who helped describe the cycles. Below is a diagram of a chlorophyll molecule. Those molecules initiate photosynthesis by trapping photons.

The wavelengths that plant chlorophyll does not absorb well are in the green range, which is why plants are green. Some photosynthetic bacteria absorb green light, so the bacteria appear purple , and there are many similar variations among bacteria. Those initial higher electron orbits from photon capture are not stable and would soon collapse back to their lower levels and emit light again, defeating the process, but in less than a trillionth of a second the electron is stripped from the capturing molecule and put into another molecule with a more stable orbit.

Separating protons from electrons via chemical reactions, and then using their resultant electrical potential to drive mechanical processes, is how life works. Early photosynthetic organisms used the energy of captured photons to strip electrons from various chemicals.

Hydrogen sulfide was an early electron donor. In the early days of photosynthetic life, there was no atmospheric oxygen. Oxygen, as reactive as it is, was deadly to those early bacteria and archaea, damaging their molecules through oxidization. The dates are c ontroversial, but it appears that after hundreds of millions of years of using various molecules as electron donors for photosynthesis, cyanobacteria began to split water to get the donor electron, and oxygen was the waste byproduct.

Cyanobacterial colonies are dated to as early as 2. Those cyanobacterial colonies formed the first fossils in the geologic record, called stromatolites. At Shark Bay in Australia and some other places the water is too saline to support animals that can eat cyanobacteria, so stromatolites still exist and give us a glimpse into early life on Earth.

Oxygenic photosynthesis uses two systems for capturing photons. The second one called Photosystem I because it was discovered before Photosystem II uses captured photon energy to add an electron to captured carbon dioxide to help transform it into a sugar. Below is a diagram of the Calvin cycle. More than two bya, and maybe more than three bya, cyanobacteria used both, and a miraculous instance of innovation tied them together. Some manganese atoms were then used to strip electrons from water.

Although the issue is still controversial regarding when it happened and how, that instance of cyanobacteria's using manganese to strip electrons from water is responsible for oxygenic photosynthesis. It seems that some enzymes that use manganese may have been "drafted" into forming the manganese cluster responsible for splitting water in oxygenic photosynthesis. Oxygen is a waste product of that innovative ATP factory. Click on image to enlarge.

About the time that the continents began to grow and plate tectonics began, Earth produced its first known glaciers, between 3. It might have been an ice age or merely some mountain glaciation. Because the evidence is relatively thin, there is also controversy about the extent of Earth's ice ages. But life may well have been involved, particularly oxygenic photosynthesis, and it was almost certainly involved in Earth's first great ice age, which may have been a Snowball Earth episode, and some pertinent dynamics follow.

The ancient carbon cycle included volcanoes spewing a number of gases into the atmosphere, including hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen, but carbon dioxide was particularly important. When the continents began forming, carbon dioxide was removed from the atmosphere via water capturing it, falling onto the land masses as carbonic acid , the carbon became combined into calcium carbonate, and plate tectonics subducted the calcium carbonate in the ocean sediments into the crust, which was again released as carbon dioxide in volcanoes.

When cyanobacteria began using water in photosynthesis, carbon was captured and oxygen released, which began the oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere. But the process may have not always been a story of continually increasing atmospheric oxygen.

There may have been wild swings. Although the process is indirect, oxygen levels are influenced by the balance of carbon and other elements being buried in ocean sediments. If carbon is buried in sediments faster than it is introduced to the atmosphere, oxygen levels will increase.

Pyrite is comprised of iron and sulfur, but in the presence of oxygen, pyrite's iron combines with oxygen and becomes iron oxide, also known as rust and the sulfur forms sulfuric acid. Pyrite burial may have acted as the dominant oxygen source before carbon burial did.

The dissolved iron was oxidized from a soluble form to an insoluble one, which then precipitated out of the oceans in those vivid red the color of rust layers that we see today and are called banded iron formations "BIFs" , which became an oxygen sink and kept atmospheric oxygen low. Far less ore needs to be melted to get an equivalent amount of iron. BIFs are the source of virtually all iron ore that humans have mined. Life processes almost certainly performed the initial work of refining iron, and humans easily finished the job billions of years later.

Copper was not refined by life processes, and copper ore takes twice as much energy to refine as iron ore does. When BIF deposition ended about 2. The high oxygen levels may have turned pyrite on the continents into acid, which increased erosion, flooded essential nutrients, particularly phosphorus, into the oceans, and would have facilitated a huge bloom in the oceans. The first was a positive excursion more carbon than expected , and the second was negative. Scientists are still trying to determine what caused them.

Beginning a little less than 2. Atmo spheric oxygen prevented Earth from losing its water as Venus and Mars did, which saved all life on Earth. An atmosp here of as little as two percent oxygen may have been adequate to form the ozone layer, and that level was likely first attained during the first GOE. Ultraviolet light carries more energy than visible light and breaks covalent and other bonds and wreaks biological havoc , particularly to DNA and RNA.

Ultraviolet light damage presented a formidable evolutionary hurdle, and proteins and enzymes that assist cellular division are like those that arose to repair damaged DNA. During the Permian-Triassic extinction event , which was the greatest extinction event yet known, there is evidence that the ozone layer was depleted and ultraviolet light damaged photosynthesizing organisms that formed the base of the food chains. From the formation of stromatolites to mass extinction events, ultraviolet light has played a role.

Today's prevailing hypothesis is that an archaean enveloped a bacterium, either by predation or colonization, and they entered into a symbiotic relationship. That purple color is probably because the original enveloped bacterium that led to the first mitochondrion was purple. That first mitochondrion became, according to the most restricted definition , the first organelle.

Cells with organelles are called eukaryotes , and today they are generally thought to have descended from that instance when a hydrogen-eating archaean enveloped a hydrogen-producing bacterium. That animation of ATP Synthase in action depicts a typical event in life forms - the generation of energy as protons cross a membrane - which in that instance makes the turbine rotate that manufactures ATP. For prokaryotes , the cellular membrane is their only one and the site of the process that fuels their lives.

If the diameter of a spherical bacterium is doubled, its surface area increases four times, but its volume increases eight times, and the disparity between surface area and volume increases as the diameter does. That means that with increasing size comes slower metabolism, so the cell becomes sluggish.

Imagine a grown man trying to live on the calories that he ingested when he was an infant. He would quickly starve to death or have to hibernate each day. Prokaryotic cells are limited in size because their energy production only takes place at their cellular membranes. The average eukaryotic cell has more than 10 thousand times the mass of the average prokaryotic cell, and the largest eukaryotic cells have hundreds of thousands of times the mass or around a trillion times for ostrich eggs, for instance, which exist as single-cells when formed.

Where an organism has the greatest energy needs, such as in muscle and nerve cells, the greatest numbers of mitochondria are found. In a typical animal cell, dotted with hundreds of mitochondria, a single mitochondrion is the size of the prokaryote that became the mitochondrion, and is representative of prokaryote size in general. That increased surface area to generate ATP allowed eukaryotic cells to grow large and complex.

There are quintillions a million trillion of those ATP Synthase motors in a human body, spinning at up to hundreds of revolutions per second, generating ATP molecules. The new mode of energy production presented various challenges, but it allowed life to become large and complex. Size is important, at the cellular level as well as the organism level. Below is a diagram of a typical plant cell. The primary adv antage that mitochondria provided was not only increased surface area for reactions, but unlike other organelles that began as bacteria such as hydrogenosomes , mitochondria retained some of their DNA.

Mitochondria move around inside the cells and provide energy where it is needed. Perhaps a few hundred million years after the first mitochondrion appeared, as the oceanic oxygen content, at least on the surface, increased as a result of oxygenic photosynthesis, those complex cells learned to use oxygen instead of hydrogen. It is difficult to overstate the importance of learning to use oxygen in respiration, called aerobic respiration.

Before the appearance of aerobic respiration, life generated energy via anaerobic respiration and fermentation. Because oxygen is in second place for creating the most energetic reactions , aerobic respiration generates, on average, about 15 times as many ATP molecules per cycle as fermentation and anaerobic respiration do although some types of anaerobic respiration can get four times the typical ATP yield.

At minimum, nothing could have flown, and any animal life that might have evolved would have never left the oceans because the atmosphere would not have been breathable.

Whether the first animals needed oxygen at all is controversial. Compl ex life means, by definition, that it has many parts and they move. Complex life needs energy to run its many moving parts. For various reasons that are far from settled among scientists, eukaryotes did not immediately rise to dominance on Earth but were on a fairly even footing with prokaryotes for more than a billion years.

That situation was at least partially related to continental configurations and oceanic currents. Without the Moon, Earth could have up to 90 o changes in its axis of rotation instead of the 22 o -to Earth would have had mass-extinction effects on those portions, and the rest of the biosphere would have been extremely challenged to survive.

Without that oxygenation, there would be little life on the ocean floor or much below the surface; almost the entire global ocean would be lifeless. Before the GOE , this was certainly the case, but relatively recent hypotheses make the case that the oceans were anoxic for more than a billion years after the GOE began, largely because of the continental configurations and geophysical and geochemical processes.

Pangaea formed about mya, but it was not the only supercontinent; it was just the only one existing during the eon of complex life. One called Rodinia may have existed one bya and did not break up until mya and reformed into another supercontinent, Pannotia , mya, which did not break up until mya , and there is a hypothesized earlier one called Columbia that existed two bya. There is also a hypothesis that all continental mass was contained in one supercontinent that lasted from 2.

When the total continental land mass was small or combined into a supercontinent, there was no land to divert that diffusion of warm water toward the poles, which results in currents.

During those times, the global ocean became one big, calm lake, with no currents of significance. Those oceans are called Canfield Oceans today, and they would have been anoxic; the oxygenated surface waters would not have been drawn by currents to the ocean floor, and the oceans were certainly anoxic before the GOE.

The interplay of those many interacting dynamics can be incredibly complex and lead to the multitude of hypotheses posited to explain those ancient events, but a leading hypothesis today is that a combination of factors, including supercontinents, variations in volcanic output, Canfield Oceans, and ice ages prevented eukaryotic life from gaining ecosystem dominance until the waning of the second Snowball Earth event, which was the greatest series of glaciations that Earth has yet experienced.

It is known today as the Cryogenian Period , which ended about mya. All animals, except for some tiny ones in anoxic environments , use aerobic respiration today, and early animals multicellular heterotrophs , which are called metazoans today may have also used aerobic respiration. Before the rise of eukaryotes, the dominant life forms, bacteria and archaea, had many chemical pathways to generate energy as they farmed that potential electron energy from a myriad of substances, such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur, iron, hydrogen, ammonia, and manganese , and photosynthesizers got their donor electrons from hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, arsenate , nitrite , and other chemicals.

If there is potential energy in electron bonds, bacteria and archaea will often find ways to harvest it. Many archaean and bacterial species thrive in harsh environments that would quickly kill any complex life, and those hardy organisms are called extremophiles.

In harsh environments, those organisms can go dormant for millennia and perhaps longer , waiting for appropriate conditions usually related to available energy. In some environments, it can take a hundred years for a cell to divide. The conventional view has long been that the GOE was a microbe holocaust , as most anaerobic microbes died from oxygen damage. However, there is little evidence for a holocaust. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels have seesawed ever since the beginning of the eon of complex life and probably earlier.

For instance, the coal beds that humanity is mining and burning with such abandon today were created because trees produced lignin that allowed them to grow tall, and it took about million years for a fungus to learn how to break lignin down, and like the other big events, that trick was probably only learned once. That time is known as the Carboniferous Period , and all of that carbon sequestered in Earth led to skyrocketing oxygen levels, the highest that Earth has yet seen.

Over the billions of years since oxygenic respiration began , aerobes have consumed The times between 1. About 1 bya, stromatolites began to decline and microbial photosynthesizers began to evolve spines , probably due to predation pressure from protists , which are eukaryotes. Eating stromatolites may reflect the first instance of grazing , although grazing is really just a form of predation. The difference between grazing and predation is the prey. If the prey is an autotroph it fixes its own carbon, by using energy from either sunlight capture or harvesting the energy potential of inorganic chemicals , it is called grazing, and if the prey got its carbon from eating autotrophs such creatures are called heterotrophs , then it is called predation.

There are other categories of life-form consumption, such as parasitism and detritivory eating dead organisms , and there are many instances of symbiosis. For complex life, the symbiosis between the mitochondrion and its cellular host was the most important one ever. The first algae fossils are from about 1. Below is the general outline of the tree of life today, in which bacteria and archaea combined to make eukaryotic cells, and in which the bacterium enveloped into a protist to make plants, and all complex life developed from protists.

Since mitochondria are the energy generation centers in eukaryotic cells some eukaryotes lost their mitochondria , usually because the mitochondria evolved into other organelles such as mitosomes and hydrogenosomes , they present similar issues related to how industrialized humanity generates energy today. Power plants have pollution issues and can explode and create environmental catastrophes such as what happened at Chernobyl and Fukushima.

A free radical is an atom, molecule, or ion with an unpaired valence electron or an unfilled shell, and thus seeks to capture an electron. The electron transport chain used to create ATP in a mitochondrion leaks electrons, which creates free radicals, which will take that electron from wherever they can get it.

Aerobic respiration creates some of the most dangerous free radicals, particularly the hydroxyl radical. The more hydroxyl radicals created, the more damage inflicted on neighboring molecules. Another free radical created by that electron leakage is superoxide , which can be neutralized by antioxidants , but there is no avoiding the damage produced by the hydroxyl radical.

ROS are not universally deleterious to life processes, but if their production spins out of control, the oxidative stress inflicted by the ROS can cripple biological structures. ROS damage can cause programmed cell death, called apoptosis , which is a maintenance process for complex life.

Antioxidants are one way that organisms defend against oxidative stress, and vitamin C is a standard antioxidant. Antioxidants usually serve multiple purposes in cellular chemistry, and antioxidant supplements generally do not work as advertised. They not only do not target the reactions that might be beneficial to prevent, but they can interfere with reactions that are necessary for life processes.