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The company was also accused of paying incentives or kickbacks to doctors to prescribe the drugs, a charge that was also resolved under the terms of the settlement. We suggest a look at Ghosh publications. These attempts are important because they recognize the need to reduce dependency upon large multinational corporations which charge high prices. This update simply expands our knowledge about Wischik. Toronto Western Hospital in Canada has a pilot study going. Coaching appointments are designed to support you throughout the development and implementation of your internship or job search strategy. Gaining Experience Through Internships Domestic and international internships facilitate career exploration and skills development and are tremendously valuable experiences.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Most of us interact with other people-- family, friends, co-workers, strangers--by an unwritten set of rules based solely on our ability to "mind read" a situation.

That is, to be intuitively aware of others around us and respond accordingly. Those who have autism have a difficult time mindreading. What comes naturally or intuitively to people without autism often must be taught like a set of concrete rules to those with autism. In his book, Baron-Cohen challenges his readers to see the world differently. Almost any modern drug has serious side effects that really don't get identified until years after the drug has come to market.

Now that sort of news is dribbling in about the statins, which perk up the heart but also, it seems, cause some brain impairment , particularly of the memory. We think there are other subtle, long-term statin downsides that have yet to be confirmed by more research. But for years doctors have been fielding reports from patients that the drugs leave them feeling "fuzzy," and unable to remember small and big things, like where they left the car, a favorite poem or a recently memorized presentation.

Last week, the Food and Drug Administration finally acknowledged what many patients and doctors have believed for a long time: Statin drugs carry a risk of cognitive side effects. The agency also warned users about diabetes risk and muscle pain. A Drug for Brain Injury? New York Times, March 1, , P. According to the Department of Defense, more than 6, veterans have had severe brain injuries since and would potentially benefit from this therapy".

Giacino, who is now at Harvard's Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital. Stem Cells and Parkinson's. Takahashi said at the time of the implant about 35 percent of the stem cells had already grown into dopamine neuron cells, with around 10 percent still alive after a year.

He said he wants to improve the effectiveness of the treatment by increasing the survival rate of dopamine neuron cells to 70 percent. Viruses and Brain Cancer. Wall Street Journal, November 15, , p. The virus was engineered to replicate in cells with high levels of nestin, a protein present in glioblastomas and certain other cancers, including prostate, pancreatic and breast.

The virus also carries an antiangiogenic gene that inhibits blood-vessel growth in tumors. We've heard often enough of Bostonians afflicted with S.

Seasonably Affective Disorder , bouts of depression brought on by the dark days of winter. Sometimes they sit in front of bright lamps to drive away the blues. But many white collar professionals use it as an excuse to bounce off to the Caribbean, excusing a week or so away from work as a necessary therapeutic exercise.

Focused flashes, however, appear to be what the doctor ordered for more serious neurological complaints. Karl Deisseroth, based at the Clark Center of Stanford University, is busy proving how, "using light in the brain, we may be able to switch depression, sociability and other seemingly ungovernable behaviors on and off. He is active in the field of 'optogenetics. It could change our treatment of diseases ranging from epilepsy and Parkinson's to anxiety and autism.

Light sensitive proteins taken from nature are inserted in the brain and lasers are connected to remedy neuron problems. As used in mice, the technique precisely hits afflicted brain areas. After further narrowing the field down to compounds, they decided to focus on four in future studies because they most successfully inhibited the brain cancer stem cells, Kornblum said.

Shirley Wang suggests that there is some slight progress in understanding Lou Gehrig's Disease. The disease typically occurs in people between 40 and 60 years old and most patients die from respiratory problems within three to five years after their symptoms start, according to the National Institutes of Health. The researchers identified a mutation, or a misfolding, in a protein called ubiquilin 2 that renders it ineffective.

Normally, ubiquilin 2 clears out from neurons other proteins that aren't working properly. The research team's finding suggests that the ineffective ubiquilin 2 fails to remove toxic proteins from the system, allowing other proteins to accumulate". He and his colleagues have been investigating another "housekeeping" pathway known as the unfolded-protein response, or UPR, a chain of reactions that aims either to fix malfunctioning proteins or, if that fails, to kill them off.

We do not need psychiatrists to shrink our brains, since our own aging processes will do the trick. See "Aging of the cerebral cortex differs between humans and chimpanzees ", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Eagleman is a bright you neuroscientist who has added punctuation to all the twists and turns German philosophy took from Immanuel Kant forward.

That is, the Germans have been busy showing us all the ways in which we do not know about things. Eagleman even goes them one better. In other words, we are driven by forces we do not understand. This is the naked gist of his new book Incognito.

With this epistemology and this kind of metaphysics, one could become nihilistic and despairing. This sounds like a very healthy agnosticism. Ramachandran, a gifted neuroscientist, is just out with The Tell-Tale Brain: The Times reviewer, Anthony Gottleib, shows how Ramachandran portrays the workings of the brain by looking at cases of its malfunctions.

Looking into what happens when it goes awry, he can then map how it does function when it is working right. He pushes the thesis that mirror neurons are a central catalyst in correct brain function, an idea that is quite controversial and has been refuted in many quarters. He also looks at Capgras syndrome when a person believes those around him have been replaced by imposters , apraxia when a person cannot mimic simple gestures , and telephone syndrome when a person is comatose but can somehow converse on the phone.

Flushing out the Brain. If something goes wrong in the process, toxins, made up largely of various proteins, start to build up and cause cells to deteriorate and die. Also active in this realm are David C.

Many chronic diseases of older patients result from the slow accumulation of foreign bodies that retard normal bodily functions. The body it seems requires catharsis. For that matter, so does the brain. Electricity and Magnets for Mental Illness. The Wall Street Journal January 11, , p. D3 did a round up on the use of electricity and magnets to treat mental ailments. Techniques include use of electricity, magnets, ultrasound, and infrared waves.

More scholarly articles about this whole field are now beginning to appear, such as those in a relatively young publication called Brain Stimulation. DBS may have particular benefit for children suffering from epilepsy, according to Andre Machado, the director of Cleveland Clinic's Center for Neurological Restoration, who conducted Ms. Cisar's operation and who is studying the use of DBS to treat pain and stroke.

Cisar's surgery illustrates the intricacies involved with major brain surgery. Dystonia is the third-most-common movement disorder in the U. Doctors don't know the cause in Ms. Cisar's case, but say it isn't genetic. One Elise Snyder, whose affair with Victor Rosen, a onetime president of the American Psychoanalytic Association, sparked a scandal and whose offbeat campaign to keep Freud alive and relevant in the United States annoyed many of her co-practitioners, has led the charge into China, trolling afar from her chair as associate clinical professor at Yale.

Interestingly the demand for therapy has far outstripped the small supply of talent, though Snyder and her colleagues are gradually training locals in Freudian technique. It is interesting culturally that psychotherapy should take such deep root in China and that this is all transpiring without supervision from the Ministry of Health which is otherwise busily engaged in overhauling and expanding healthcare in China.

Much of the one on one work is also done on video Skype, quite a different format in which to bring together therapist and patient. New Yorker, January 20, , pp The thought is that stress levels are very intense for those who feel they are not in control of their work flow and the pace at which they respond to demands. When people feel stressed, a tiny circuit in the base of their brain triggers the release of glucocorticoids, a family of stress hormones that puts the body in a heightened state of alert.

Gradually this induces neuron breakdown and changes in the nature of the brain itself. Sapolsky has been experimenting with a modified herpes simplex virus to get at the glucocoricoids by generating neuroprotective proteins—with success in rodent experiments. If more and more people feel like victims, nothing the medics do will help much.

Thinks David Lodge authored Thinks in Part of the counterpoint is the different meanings and feelings we have about consciousness, depending on whether we operate in the embryonic neuroscience world or within the conventions of the novel. What we do see is compelling outbursts of instinctive behavior that break through the norms of society but then watch as both conventional habits and mindsets determine that life goes on pretty much as it was yesterday.

In other words, despite all the thinking and all the states of hyper-consciousness, the unconscious asserts itself pretty well. This is a world full of brave wave activity amidst, in the end, a rather static society. Consciousness has become detached from purpose and activity. For some, the objective is to continue the destigmatization of mental illness. Those afflicted with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia feel a need to speak out. This test looked at the presence or lack thereof of 18 communication proteins in the blood.

Exercise Calms the Nerves. Iacoboni has authored a book on this very subject called Mirroring People: We would point readers to Autism Research for more citations from the prolific Baron-Cohen.

Loneliness Can Spread Like Wildfire. Wired on the Brain The often suggestive but frequently jumbled Wired magazine April , pp. With robots and other systems processes, scientists at the Allen Institute have speeded up the process. Even with improved tools, the brain is proving ever more complicated: Moreover, as the mapping progresses, they learn that each brain is unique, and mapping one is no certain roadmap for another.

So the faster they run, the more the goal recedes. See our initial announcement of the Atlas on Brain Stem. Plasticity Every once in a while editors earn their money. Usually they are down in the weeds, miss the point, and feed their readers popcorn. The Marco Polo of Neuroscience. Ramachandran , the behavioral neurologist who is the director of the Center for Brain and Cognition at the University of California San Diego. The interrelationship of different parts of the brain to each other and to parts of the body can be changed for therapeutic effect.

As his theory about autism gets more play, there have been increasing efforts to bring plasticity into play in the potential treatments of neurological complaints.

Once Mischel began analzying the results, he noticed that low delayers, the children who rang the bell quickly, seemed more likely to have behavioral problems, both in school and at home. Brain Deterioration Slowed by Nose Drops. As it happens, the vaccine did not progress very fast, as indicated in a Gazette article of October 20, Though it failed in trials, partial results obtained indicated that after just two injections patients' brains were partly cleared of the plaques.

The researchers do not mention that their fundamental assumptions may be wrong. All About Obsession Obsession: Economist, November 1, , p. In a couple of decades, obsessive-compulsive behavior has gone from a rare ailment—one in in to 2 or 3 people in As we have said elsewhere , our understanding of the obsessive compulsive mechanism is not very advanced, nor have we done as much work as we could on harnessing the creativity and focus of obsessives for the benefit of society.

Forbes, May 5, , pp. Her work stems from the theory that the brain is plastic and can be reworked to form new connections. Sweet Amnesia Those who are readers of Proust will remember that he had an awfully keen memory. Those who have lovingly followed his voluminous writing on recapturing the past marvel at the completeness with which he recalled the madeleine of youth such that it kindled all his senses.

Ironically, now, we are learning that sugar then and sugar now actually clogs our memories and makes it harder and harder to recall anything. Since glucose regulation is improved with physical activity , Dr.

The Infinite Mind The Infinite Mind is an absolutely foolish name for a radio series, just the sort of thing euphemistic types in public broadcasting like to drum up. Big oceanic names to label small puddles. But it works, and we occasionally take a look at its offerings. On December 10, , at age 37, she had a stroke which more or less shut down her left temporal lobe—and all sorts of functionality—but nonetheless left her feeling great, as if she had discovered Nirvana See the New York Times , May 25, , pp.

Lost, for the moment, was her ability to speak, the capacity to decipher letters and numbers, even the connections to recognize her mother who, incidentally, nursed her back to health. All this she has recounted in her memoir, My Stroke of Insight. Surgery and eight years of recovery were required for her to bring back her whole brain. The kids in the s were only prophetic when they talked about following their bliss.

It is more of a chronicle, than a history, sketchy at best. After we admit that this is lightweight, we can still salute a couple of facets. It provides a short list of seminal 19th-century figures in psychiatry—as well as some flavor of the debates that stalked this field in that period. This is the first time that scientists have associated an anatomical trait with familial risk for the disorder.

These brain changes appear to run in families and may represent a genetic risk factor for developing the condition. The current diagnosis of OCD available to psychiatrists is subjective and therefore knowledge of the underlying causes may lead to better diagnosis and ultimately improved clinical treatments.

We caution readers that plaque seems to be more of a symptom than a part of the disease mechanism, so it remains to be seen if its reduction positively affects the disease itself. We suggest a look at Ghosh publications.

Made by an Israeli company called OrNim and slated for trials on patients in U. The probe, which rests on the scalp, contains three laser light sources of different wavelengths, a light detector, and an ultrasonic emitter. A British neuroscientist, Adrian Owen, at the University of Cambridge has scanned several dozen people since , sometimes detecting signs of recognition to auditory stimuli.

The prognosis, however, with patients suffering from oxygen deprivation is much worse than that of those afflicted by head injuries.

The Age of Indecision An awesome amount of research painfully proves the obvious. The elderly, says a recent body of work, have a hard time making decisions and are prone to poor judgments.

Natalie Denberg at the University of Iowa led the research team. The interesting question, of course, is what keeps seniors in good running condition, and what kinds of things inhibit such deterioration.

Clearly the brain has to be used to keep in tune. Garlic and Brain Cancer? For the first time, those compounds have been identified as effective against glioblastoma, a type of brain tumor equivalent to a death sentence within a short period after diagnosis.

In this study, it has been shown that garlic compounds produce reactive oxygen species in rapidly growing brain cancer cells, essentially gorging them to death with activation of multiple death cascades. Ray said people should cut and peel a piece of fresh garlic and let it sit for fifteen minutes before eating or cooking it. This amount of time is needed to release an enzyme allinase that produces these anti-cancer compounds. Both Ray and Banik caution the public in eating too much garlic, noting that too much of it can cause diarrhea, allergies, internal bleeding, and bad breath and body odor, among other problems, so it is important to monitor garlic consumption.

Please understand that The Economist folks got it exactly backwards here. Zeeshan-ul-hassan Usmani, a computer scientist at Princeton, and Ronaldo Menezes of the Florida Institute of Technology have tried to capitalize on the tendency of consumers to buy what is perceived as popular. What they do, with scanners, is show each individual consumer how many of his co-shoppers in the store at the moment have bought the product he is looking at.

Fact is, this idea is still in test, although both Wal-Mart and Tesco were slated to give it a whirl. Matthew Salganik, formerly of Columbia University and now at Princeton, has shown that consumers may be inclined to buy or download songs that have been shown to be quite popular. RanKing RanQueen , a convenience chain in Japan, only sells very popular goods, and the rankings are updated weekly.

In general, the key is to get the ranking or popularity of a good communicated to enough people. We have hinted at the importance of swarm intelligence in human beings, animals, and social insects in many places on the Global Province. We suspect that we should pay closer attention to bee smarts and also the impressive powers of honey, the output of bees at work.

Using bees to test for pollution is still in its infancy, but it is not implausible. Other insects have been used to gauge water quality. Brain Institute a Good Idea? We would have to question, of course, whether he will have the power and the will to hammer heads together to achieve some common goals.

The American intelligence community, for instance, has nominally had some direction and coordination since the creation of the CIA; but the intelligence units in Government, particularly in the Defense Department, have very much gone their own way. Chemistry, for instance, has a great deal to do with real progress in neuroscience, yet only a handful of brain scientists can find their way around a molecule.

The study, led by former McGill post-doctoral fellow in psychiatry Guillaume Lucas with his supervisor, the late Dr. The findings suggest that feelings of social isolation are linked to alterations in the activity of genes that drive inflammation, the first response of the immune system.

The study provides a molecular framework for understanding why social factors are linked to an increased risk of heart disease, viral infections and cancer. Alzheimer's Drug Effectiveness Jeffrey L. To wit, he indicates this is quite a challenge, since some of the drugs being offered are only affecting symptoms of the disease, and not modifying the structure and mechanism of the disease.

Shoring up the Brain Many efforts are afoot to make the brain more resilient. The key is to weed out potentially destructive forms of iron that generate harmful free radicals while leaving benign forms of iron alone to carry out vital functions in the body.

But the presence of excessive amounts of hydrogen peroxide will trigger an unmasking, allowing the phenols to sop up and inactivate the bad iron. The principle of gene silencing is simple: Not the bountiful, exhilarating variety, but rather the troublesome kind. Often they recapture people who have passed away.

The dreaming imagination does not just harvest images from remembered experience, he said. Kennedy Medical Center in Edison, N. Mouth breathing or warm packs had the opposite effect.

Incidentally, studied efforts at brain cooling—such as breathing—seem also to provide relief to sufferers from a variety of neurological ticks such as OCD and ADD, etc. D1, D4, and D5. However, we do believe this is the correct path for detection and pre-detection of the several complaints of the brain. Plenty of research papers have identified a host of biomarkers for this disease. Proteome Sciences and Nanosphere are both working the marker problem.

A Cornell study has identified some 23 markers for the disease. We would caution readers to take these results with a grain of salt, but nonetheless the trend is unmistakable. Both stress and depression have risen considerably over the last decade, both because of what student populations bring to college and because of the atmospherics at colleges.

When we visit college health departments, we find that many have staffed up considerably to handle mental and emotional problems, though we find these mental health activities are not well administered and college administrations are rather divorced from what goes in their health departments.

In the survey the Assessment covered approximately students at schools. Students reported the following feelings at least once during the year: Small, an associate professor of neurology at the Columbia University Medical Center , looked at changes in the brains of volunteers who worked out on exercise equipment.

The researchers were trying to confirm the findings of earlier research they did involving mice. When the mice exercised, blood flow increased to a part of the brain called the hippocampus, and more specifically to the dentate gyrate. In post-mortems, the researchers found evidence of neuron growth in the dentate gyrate. Libby claimed, in defense, that bad memory, not willful intent, caused him to make mistakes in his Grand Jury testimony.

This is a harmless relative of the bugs that cause tuberculosis and leprosy that had, in this case, been rendered even more harmless by killing it.

Chris Lowry of Bristol University has further investigated this phenomenon. Experimenting with mice, he found that cytokine levels rose, which in turn could act on sensory cells which in turn release serotonin. This offers the intriguing possibility of treating depression with bacteria and, further, it may explain the rise of certain diseases which may flourish in the absence on myco-vaccae. See Journal of N euroscience. Many researchers have been working this problem, wondering about their effectiveness, costs, and risks.

Some believe second-generation drugs demonstrate more dangerous side effects. Some of the NIH studies emphasize that the newer drugs inflict huge costs without any commensurate upside.

Separately, of course, it has been noted that no really good drug for schizophrenia has come on the market, and that a whole raft of supportive treatment mechanisms are still state of the art for its treatment.

Kenneth Jobson had already paved the way with some successes on medication regulation. Herbert Meltzer of Vanderbilt joined the effort. A new Web-based tool is now available to help clinicians determine the best medication for patients with schizophrenia.

An international team led by Meltzer completed the new algorithms, or step-by-step protocols, in late to provide clinicians with help on their treatment decisions. Further it was thought that controlling polypharmacy would improve patient outcomes. The literature, however, continues to reveal problematic results with schizophrenia drug treatments.

Learning While You Sleep Max Planck researchers in Heidelberg are investigating communication between memory areas during sleep. Their study offers the hitherto strongest proof that new information is transferred between the hippocampus, the short term memory area, and the cerebral cortex during sleep.

It has been difficult up to now to use experiments to examine the brain processes that create memory. The scientists in Heidelberg developed an innovative experimental approach especially for this purpose. They succeeded in measuring the membrane potential of individual interneurones neurones that suppress the activity of the hippocampus in anaethetised mice.

At the same time, they recorded the field potential of thousands of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex. This allowed them to link the behaviour of the individual nerve cells with that of the cerebral cortex. The researchers discovered that the interneurones they examined are active at almost the same time as the field potential of the cerebral cortex.

There was just a slight delay, like an echo. In the present study, Dr. But the two new genes, as well, look more generally to be a pathway to mental retardation. But it turns out that multi-tasking is pretty darn hard for everybody. Their research revealed that the central bottleneck was caused by the inability of the lateral frontal and prefrontal cortex, and also the superior frontal cortex, to process the two tasks at once.

Both areas have been shown in previous experiments to play a critical role in cognitive control. See Neuron , vol. Research on the insula, funded by the NDA, was led by Dr.

Antoine Bechara at the University of Southern California. See WSJ , January 26, , p. Son of William Shawn, longtime editor of the New Yorker , and brother of Wallace Shawn, the actor, Shawn attributes some of his tortures to separation from his autistic sister Mary at an early age.

In a January 19 column in the WSJ , she does a column of snippets from the new book. The Dalai Lama wondered if the reverse were true. That is, in addition to the brain giving rise to thoughts and hopes and beliefs and emotions that add up to this thing we call the mind, maybe the mind also acts back on the brain to cause physical changes in the very matter that created it. If so, then pure thought would change the brain's activity, its circuits or even its structure. For instance, certain synthesized speech can alter the auditory cortex of dyslexic kids in a way that lets their brains hear previously garbled syllables; intensely practiced movements can alter the motor cortex of stroke patients and allow them to move once paralyzed arms or legs.

The kind of change the Dalai Lama asked about was different. It would come from inside. The antidepressant raised activity there. The drug lowered activity there. With cognitive therapy, says Dr. If a skill becomes so routine you can do it on autopilot, practicing it will no longer change the brain.

And if you take up mental exercises to keep your brain young, they will not be as effective if you become able to do them without paying much attention. Eleanor McGuire and her associates at the Wellcome Trust have long been exploring this very territory. Our findings provide compelling support for the idea that memory and future thought are highly interrelated and help explain why future thought may be impossible without memories.

Although the frontal lobes play a well-documented role in carrying out future-oriented executive operations, such as anticipation, planning and monitoring, the spark for these activities may well be the very process of envisioning oneself in a specific future event, an activity based within and reliant upon the same neurally distributed network used to retrieve autobiographical memories.

Second, within this neural network, patterns of activity suggest that the visual and spatial context for our imagined future often is pieced together using our past experiences, including memories of specific body movements and visual perspective changes—data stored as we navigated through similar settings in the past.

Sharon Begley, author of one of the better columns in the Wall Street Journal , has touched on this and, lately, has delivered two salvos making this point, both on November 17 and November Orthodoxy also stifles research on other culprits. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco.

She goes on to mention a few of the enzyme and gene theories that may shed some light on the disease. What she makes clear and what we should understand is that standard orthodoxy has slowed discovery on this fast-spreading disease. We are particularly aware of research that has been shoved aside in the Boston medical community, but a similar lack of open-mindedness has shut down innovative thinking in many other ports of call.

The Economist July 29, , pp. By … that number will have trebled. As we have mentioned many times, researchers have tended to focus on one simple gene or explanation in trying to discover the key to Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, autism, and a host of neurological diseases. Our suspicion is that the disease mechanism in each instance is infinitely more complicated than investigators can imagine, and that researchers have not even perceived the correct disease model that would help lead to advances.

Alzheimer's research is now trying to see whether the focus should be amyloids or not. What seems evident to us is that amyloid is one of many wastes, which also includes metallic outputs, that the system cannot process.

The disease condition, in our view, is evidence that the system is not ridding itself of sundry excretions. Rats, it is revealed, grow thousands of brain cells every day, but only retain them if used; otherwise, they die off in a couple of weeks. For the longest while scientists thought that we did not grow new cells—that we only had those with which we came to this party.

But now they know we grow a lot, many in the hippocampus, the center for remembering events. Tracey Shors of Rutgers and her colleagues found that neurons are retained if used, and, maturing, get wired into networks if they are involved in complex learning chores. For more on this, see the vita of Dr. There is still considerable dispute, however, as to what extent brain exercise helps deteriorating brains.

C hemo Hurts We are intimately familiar with cancer survivors who say that their brains are very, very cloudy for about a year after their last intravenous feed by the oncologists. Now researchers have come along to prove the obvious. Existing remedies only help half of all depression patients and often have unpleasant side effects.

They target neurotransmitters, acting on proteins from only about 20 of the approximately 15, genes in the brain. Cortisol may damage nerve cell connections and prevent nerve growth.

Targacept is studying mecamylamine, a blood pressure drug it got from Merck, seeing whether it will block receptors and control mood fluctuation. As usual, there is the threat of side effects, particularly to the liver.

CBS is out with a new TV drama about—of all things—brain surgeons. It stars the fabulous Stanley Tucci, but it already may be terminal. Hanson Tucci is brainy, talented, and, of course, fouled up. He suffers from hallucinations, but we think the writers are just projecting their own complaint onto their main character. Seger, against each other with diametrically opposed philosophies about how to approach their patients. At least the writers have infused the drama with a touch of humor to break up all the staring at brain x-rays.

The entire neurological wing of the hospital is decorated with the pattern of nerves that map the brain. It makes for a busy background. Too bad CBS tarted it up. Cognitive Decline Sharon Begley points out that we can get rather muddled about what produces brain decline Wall Street Journal , April 28, , p.

Many think that those in brain-active jobs ward off dementia; more likely, says Ms. Begley, they have well-fortified brains in the first place, and that they are armored against decline.

Mental exercise does not necessarily correlate with mental preservation, despite the games dreamed up by neurologists and others to keep you humming—many of which are mentioned on Global Province.

They only seem to help the brain along if you keep upping the ante, challenging the mind with tougher and tougher mental exercises. Begley notes that other forms of training—cardiovascular fitness exercise, for instance—do seem to tune up the brain at the same time.

See the Wall Street Journal , October 17, , pp. The drug targets an enzyme, called gamma secretase, that is believed to play a role in the build-up of amyloid. Narcolepsy Either one gets too much sleep or no sleep at all. We are just beginning to take a look at Narcolepsy.

But they have baked brains. We find its historical material a little useful, though we are not able to evaluate its focus on hypocretins. We would, of course, like to see more research on the site from other institutions. It probably helps to look at the Narcolepsy Network in order to get a wider scan of the field. Chez Scaruffi You cannot be in the brain business and fail to look at Piero Scaruffi.

He is perhaps most renowned for his music site but Thymos is a must for anyone who wants to think about cognition. We have just begun to explore it. Perhaps a good starting point is his Annotated Bibliography of the Mind , which covers a fair patch of the literature on consciousness.

If you need to get away from his catalog of cognition, visit his cluster of other sites and strands. If this pruning cannot take place, the organ becomes less and less efficient, and dire consequences result. This is a rare brain disorder that is caused by an autoimmune response which destroys the human equivalents of ion channels that are affected in the mutant fruit fly.

Eventually, this extreme sleep deprivation kills them. See the Economist , June 18, , pp. Elizabeth Gould of Princeton did research in this specific area, and allied research has been done by Craig Kinsley at University of Richmond.

See Nature , 24 August , pp. E lectro-Shock Electric shock treatments are being selectively revived. See the Economist , June 3, , pp. Its effects are reported to be long lasting.

It builds on the idea of deep-brains stimulation which is a more complicated procedure, the vagus insert being much easier to do. It does, however, require a fairly long course of treatment—at least 3 months-for the palliative effects to take hold.

The Defense Department has put a blanket on its staff, preventing it from commenting on the issue. It is our understanding that Senators Dick Durban and George Allen are separately plumping for a richer budget.

Stuttering We receive reports of some modest progress on stuttering. Like autism and many other neurological complaints, it is no longer regarded as an environmentally induced form of behavior, but instead is taken to be genetic and neurological in nature. D1 and D6, various hypotheses and possibilities are forwarded. Maguire, a psychiatrist at the University of California, Irvine, wants to cure the ailment that afflicts him and an estimated three million Americans.

Stutterers, on the other hand, show an unusually large amount of right brain activity. Maguire has also done small trials with two schizophrenia drugs, Risperdal and Zyprexa. Apparently, the post-op animal exhibited the same personality and a minimal reduction in intelligence. One of his oldest patients had the surgery in his thirties. Bradley Schlaggar, a pediatric neurologist and a professor at Washington University in St.

Louis, told me about an experiment that he conducted for his Ph. Once the second rat had grown up, Schlaggar took a look at its brain and discovered that the transplanted chunk of visual cortex was functioning as a somatosensory cortex. Rejecting Bettleheim, who tended to think autistic children were the products of untoward parenting, he recognized it as a specific brain disorder.

More importantly, we think, he developed the TEACCH program in North Carolina which, starting in , helped parents and caregivers by understanding that autistics did not learn in traditional ways but could develop, especially with carefully designed interventions by parents and others.

George Huntington was the first to describe the disease in his paper On Chorea, which was published in Although cystamine treatment rescued neuron loss in the striatum of the HD animal model, motor function did not improve. However, gene silencing was able to restore motor recovery without rescuing striatal neuron loss.

These results indicate that the abnormalities of motor function seen in HD are due to neuronal dysfunction, and not necessarily neuron loss. Wallis was 19 when he suffered a traumatic brain injury that left him briefly in a coma and then in a minimally conscious state, in which he was awake but uncommunicative other than occasional nods and grunts, for more than 19 years.

Deja Vecu A variant of déjà vu has given researchers a more complex understanding of the memory mechanism. Canadian psychologist Endel Tulving had previously broken memories into two categories—episodic and semantic. Semantic broadly relates to the idea of recalling a piece of data we have committed to memory. Episodic memories are more complex, using different parts of the brain, to conjure up memory but also to interpret it as something we have experienced.

Chris Moulin at Leeds University and, earlier, David Schacter of Harvard both had reported on individuals who felt strongly familiar with people, newspaper accounts, and other subject matter with which they had no possible connection. Moulin and Conway concluded that … the deja vecu of their patients was similarly located in the temporal lobes….

Presented with a visual illusion, chronic schizophrenics could see much more clearly than a control group of normally functioning people. Yet despite this miniscule number, the auditory system is the fastest of the five senses. Researchers credit this discrepancy to a series of lightning-fast calculations in the brain that translate minimal input into maximal understanding. The condition is linked to the same factors—high cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking, obesity, diabetes—that play a role in many heart attacks.

Just like in the heart, the condition causes narrowing or blockage in brain blood vessels. The review of the book by William Grimes in the Times is not terribly profound, and it more or less suggests that brain surgery is no less, no more complicated than other forms of surgical endeavor. It does make clear that Firlik is a fairly vivid writer who can communicate about her world in terms the layperson can surely understand.

Molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex in a case of dementia praecox S. Central nervous system of the Hirudo medicinalis G. One hundred years ago Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Camillo Golgi were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their work on revealing the structure of the brain. This will be a permanent exhibition, but it will also tour other cities in Spain and around the world. The early period, commencing with a detailed study of the nervous system, and containing contain drawings of some of the most important pioneers in neuroscience, including Cajal, Golgi, Retzius, Nissl, Dogiel and Alzheimer.

Hippocampus of a Brainbow mouse J. Adult stem cells from human brain N. Mapping the Mind—in Detail Julie H. See Forbes , November 14, , pp. There are a dozen or so labs looking at neural circuitry of fruit flies, but Simpson is working a wider canvas than most. Most are looking at a narrow brain function: Researchers at MIT, the University of Hong Kong, and others cut a channel in the optic nerve of 53 newly born hamsters.

These short amino acids are capable of creating a molecular scaffold that can bridge such gaps. This was again tried with adult hamsters, and significant vision returned to them.

Also see the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. T eacher Education in Finland The Finnish education system, whatever its dilemmas, gets the very highest marks when compared with the offerings of other nations in Europe and around the world. For this reason it is stimulating to see what has been going on there in teacher education. Current Trends and Future Scenarios.

The author notes that even insular Finland must, like every other country, take account of a rapid changing society which means adding strategic and tactical flexibility to its processes in order for the nation to keep up with the times. This contrasts, for instance, with the practices of several U. It is noted that the Finnish teacher understands that he or she must be committed to a life-long pattern of re-education.

Apparently, as in the U. There still is stability in teacher employment in the primary grades. The history of education in almost every country, however, is littered with tales of intractable systems that fail to change at a rate that will keep up with the transformation society is undergoing: Finland, today, has the same complaint.

This is reinforced by the fact that central government controls so much of what is going on: Disappointingly, the article does not come to terms with the high stress atmosphere that characterizes schools every where today. That has led to a rash of student depression and even sporadic outbreaks of suicide. In the most recent test, which focused on science, Finland's students placed first in science and near the top in math and reading, according to results released late last year.

Parents of newborns receive a government-paid gift pack that includes a picture book. Some libraries are attached to shopping malls, and a book bus travels to more remote neighborhoods like a Good Humor truck. There are fewer disparities in education and income levels among Finns.

All year-old students took the PISA test. Even with the potential risks that inhibitors may pose, researchers are moving forward a host of drugs that may slow and stop amyloid development: High doses of gamma-secretase inhibitors cause severe toxic effects in mice as a consequence of disrupting the Notch signal, raising serious concerns about this potential therapy.

Nevertheless, a drug candidate developed by pharmaceutical maker Eli Lilly has passed safety tests in volunteers. This kind of test is called a phase I clinical trial. Moreover, researchers have identified molecules that modulate gamma-secretase so that A-beta production is blocked without affecting the cleavage of Notch. In Dale B. Schenk and his colleagues at Elan Corporation in South San Francisco made a groundbreaking discovery: Other researchers are pursuing nonimmunological strategies to stop the aggregation of A-beta.

Several companies have identified compounds that interact directly with A-beta to keep the peptide dissolved in the fluid outside brain neurons, preventing the formation of harmful clumps. Neurochem in Quebec is developing Alzhemed, a small molecule that apparently mimics heparin, the natural anticoagulant. In blood, heparin prevents platelets from gathering into clots, but when this polysaccharide binds to A-beta, it makes the peptide more likely to form deposits.

Of course, less physical and social activity on the part of the aged, and the less challenging environments oldsters live in, impair production of neurons and maintenance of neural circuitry. The evidence seems to point to the fact that older brains can be retrained through pertinent exercises to retain their functionality. When the ear is attentive and working hard, it funnels clearer information to brain centers that handle memory and perception.

Merzenich claims his software enables the brain, according to cognitive testing, to perform as if it were ten years younger. There is a host of research on plasticity, but this whole area of exploration is still quite controversial, and investigators still do not know how long the effects of brain training, even when effective, endure. Also, she notes that challenged people tend to have better sustained brain function than people who have cashed in their chips and become too laid back.

We remember well a chap we knew in the early 80s who, nearing retirement, got a grant from the Ford Foundation and became the oldest freshman at Harvard. He thought, wrongly we think, that you cannot do much about the body, but that you can recharge the brain.

He, incidentally, had never gotten a college education, but had paid for his kids to go to the best universities in the land, so he thought he deserved his chance at bat. It was a bizarre experience, since the grad students and teachers were fixated on getting ahead, and his fellow students were fastened on getting grades.

Only he had the luxury of trying to get an education. For the Ford Foundation, he only had to write a paper about the experience. In the early stages the honorees were involved with basic research that tried to describe the disease mechanism. With the turn of the century, researchers are looking more closely at treatments, trying to do something to at least stall the dementia progress.

We have been impressed at the wide swathe of institutions represented by the winners: Flexing Your Brain The literature is now littered with hypotheses that say the brain can be stretched and be rewired, overcoming the deterioration of age and other mental defects, even surging beyond the capabilities that were apparent there at birth. But we think the Japanese are really onto something. Train Your Brain in Minutes a Day.

Having studied test subjects in his lab, Nintendo programmers have devised a hand-held game that includes drills that stimulate the brain most. Nintendo has definitely penetrated older segments of its home market, well beyond teen age enthusiasts. The revive-your-brain market is open for the taking. But the company has turned things on end.

People are clamoring for it not just for games, but also to keep a household budget, play the guitar, and study the Buddhist scripture Heart Sutra. Since its introduction in , the DS, which responds in writing and speech, has spurred software makers to fill the Japanese market with an eclectic array of reference guides, digital books and study tools.

See The Boston Globe , March 10, No less than students are enrolled. But with such an enormous course enrollment, Tal D. Their studies show that rewiring of the brain involves the formation and elimination of synapses, the connections between neurons. The technique offers a new way to examine how learning can spur changes in the organization of neuronal connections in the brain. To study those kinds of changes in a living animal, Svoboda and his colleagues started with transgenic mice that were engineered to produce green fluorescent protein within neurons in a portion of the brain that processes tactile sensory inputs from the whiskers.

To observe changes in these neurons at high resolution, the scientists constructed a 2-photon laser scanning microscope. Importantly, it helps us understand that the brain is constantly remaking itself, often due to external stimulus. In back-to-back papers published online, Rockefeller University scientists established possible new targets for drugs.

First, PLD1 regulates the shuttling of beta-amyloid precursor protein beta-APP , a large molecule produced naturally in the body and found in many different cells, including brain cells.

It covers a variety of needs and interests. In general they now suspect that the affliction is really a host of conditions that tend to look alike at the macro level. But it probably stems from a host of causes, the brain having taken multiple assaults from external forces. And the wiring foul ups that cause it vary so widely that scans and other technical devices may show circuitry in far different parts of the brain are amiss from patient to patient. The brain works as a unit. Everything is connected to everything else, and what we really need to be looking at more is abnormality in the circuitry level.

As much as anybody, he can be credited as well with the creation of the modern computer. He worked with the great theoretical physicist John von Neumann and the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, an Austrian star at Cambridge. As we are discovering now in our neurological investigations, it is researchers such as Turing who can cross over many disciplines that best illuminate the complexities of the brain.

The chemical connections between neurons, called synapses, are thought to be critical to the formation of those networks and hence the laying down of memories. In a group led by Thomas Arendt of the University of Leipzig in Germany showed that the number of synapses in the hippocampus, a brain structure crucial for learning and memory, falls during hibernation. At the end of hibernation this protein clears away, and it is possible that the understanding of its comings and goings in the human brain would be helpful to understanding various disease mechanisms.

This site, and the sites it links to, also provide a reasonable picture of the organization of the brain. Is Singularity Upon Us? In Ubiquity , Ray Kursweil speculates that a better brain is close at hand: A thousand dollars of computation will equal the 10, trillion calculations per second that I estimate is necessary to emulate the human brain by The software side will take a little longer. In order to achieve the algorithms of human intelligence, we need to actually reverse-engineer the human brain, understand its principles of operation.

And there again, not surprisingly, we see exponential growth where we are doubling the spatial resolution of brain scanning every year, and doubling the information that we're gathering about the brain every year. Most objective observers realize that we really do not have a clue as to how anti-depressants work, that they do not work very well, and that they are very crude drugs that are used promiscuously. The side effects are uncharted, and we have long been puzzled as to why it takes so long for them to kick in beneficially, although negative side effects often show up quickly.

Now we are finally getting some hints as to how serotonin really gets activated:. The energy levels of the fields were six times smaller than that of conventional cell phones and unlikely to harm healthy cells, the researchers say.

The fibrils subsequently dissolved and remained dissolved for at least one week after being irradiated, indicating that the treatment was not only effective at breaking up the fibrils but also resulted in a lower tendency of the proteins to re-aggregate, according to the researchers.

Autopsies, however, show an amazing reduction in plaque. Schneider began to get her life back. Electrodes were surgically inserted in her brain and attached by wires to two pacemakers implanted in her chest….

Within eight weeks Ms. Movement disorders can result from a variety of stimuli, ranging from diseases to oxygen starvation to drug side effects. Perceptions here can be manipulated by expectations suggestions. Hypnosis has a long history, to include its uses for medical problems, but nobody quite ever has known how it works.

The subjects are primarily Dominicans, many from the Washington Heights neighborhood where the Taub is located. Late-onset is complex, stemming from a combination of genes, only one of which has been identified. Mayeux is involved with a host of neurological activities at Columbia as well. Such genius has long been associated with serious mental illness, especially schizophrenia and drug abuse. Drugs and Brain Rot To some extent, Nancy Andreasen works hard at telling us what we already sort of know.

Last Fall in the Times September 16, , p. That is, many conditions in the brain and elsewhere are due to accelerated deterioration.

And drugs, by implication, are given out much too promiscuously. Andreasen had told us that she had moved her focus to creativity, but it is clear that she still has a hand in the schizophrenia game. Airport screeners may miss target items when they are surrounded by other very similar items.

As well, they also easily miss targets with slight variances from what they have in mind: Sadly, the site does not provide information on current research nor on how a lay person should evaluate the several medications being ladled out rather freely for such problems.

More restraint in their use seems to be indicated. Born Dualists Yale has many Blooms, but not many Roses. Paul Bloom is a Yale cognitive psychologist who believes that we come into this world making with a epistemological structure that distinguishes between body and soul from the get-go.

A six-step guide to landing your next job from the website, The Simple Dollar. Practice, practice, practice your interview skills! Versatile PhD is an online community helping graduate students and PhDs identify, prepare for, and succeed in non-academic careers.

Domestic and international internships facilitate career exploration and skills development and are tremendously valuable experiences. Global Careers has a number of resources available to help students identify and seek promising opportunities. Additionally, many academic programs also work with students in their concentration to develop relevant internships.

We offer more than 35 highly marketable Professional Skills Courses each year, including several online courses which are also available during the summer and the winter inter-session.

Courses taught on campus are open to current students and to alumni on a space-available basis. Online skills courses are open to both current students and alumni. This extremely interactive event is designed to explore individual leadership styles and potential and in doing so, better equips students to pursue career paths that are suitable to their personal and professional goals. Not only will participating students apply this knowledge to leadership roles at the school, they will continue this learning process and use these skills during their employment search and throughout their careers.

SAISLeads Plus is a series of workshops offered throughout the academic year to provide students with a unique experience that will enhance leadership skills. We also arrange site visits to local employers with a strong alumni base. These visits often include career panels that provide background on the variety of positions available, special topic presentations by senior alumni and recruiting presentations by human resources staff. A sampling of employers who participated in career fairs during previous years include: The Washington Week occurs in the fall semester and is a series of panels with alumni or area professionals to give students insight about different industries, including but not limited to, consulting, international development, energy and the environment, US federal government, think thanks, among others.

This event includes a panel of alumni across all sectors who share their experiences with networking during their US job search. After the panel discussion students join alumni for small group discussions on the challenges and benefits of networking and to gather advice from alumni. Panels vary from year to year, but this past year included sector topics such as: This is a very popular event; each year, nearly all students participate. Throughout the academic year, students and alumni participate in career panels, some of which are organized with the student-led Career Clubs.

These discussions provide students with valuable sector information and insights about specific organizations and institutions. We organize 20 sector-focused career treks to Asia, Europe, and North America every year: In past years, we have helped students in various Career Clubs coordinate treks to other destinations as well. If you are interested in helping to organize a career trek, contact your Career Club president or contact the Global Careers office on your campus.

During the Austin Energy Trek, participating organizations included: During the Beijing Trek, participating organizations included: Students at Shell during the Houston Career Trek.

Students during the London Finance Career Trek. Alumni continue to be one of our key assets for recruiting! You know the curriculum, you recognize the quality of students and faculty, and you understand how this background fits into your own chosen profession.

To see the services we provide, please click on the 'For Employers' tab on this website. Below are some of the ways we ask alumni to engage with students. Meet informally over breakfast or lunch to discuss your career and provide feedback to a smaller group of students on their interest in your field. Host a group of students at your place of employment. Help us coordinate alumni panels and employer visits for a group of students in your city or region. Meet one-on-one with students to talk more in depth about your career path and provide specific feedback on how a student's interest and background would fit into your field.

Help students practice specific interview skills. We would be happy to organize sessions in our office, help connect students to you electronically, or send students to you. Talk with an Expert Information Sessions: If you would like to speak on a specific professional development topic or subject to a group of students, please let us know. Speak in a series of panels to give students insight about different industries, including but not limited to, consulting, international development, energy and the environment, US federal government, think thanks, among others.

International Student Networking Event: S hare your experiences with networking during your US job search. Serve as a mentor via the 1-on-1 career development mentoring program.

See below a list of opportunities to connect with your next hire. Please contact the staff member at the campus located most conveniently to you in terms of distance or time zone see 'Connect with Us' tab , or contact Janet Burrowes, Associate Director for Employers Relations, jburrowes jhu. You are welcome to advertise open positions on Handshake, a free, online job posting and internship resource for students and alumni which allows them to respond directly to the posting organization.

In addition to posting an opportunity, Global Career Services can prepare customized books of cover letters and resumes for your consideration from qualified candidates who express specific interest in your job or internship posting.

Employer presentations are an effective way to provide students with an overview of your organization, while building brand awareness on campus. Presentations can be either formal or informal and often range from auditorium style engagements with technical support to informal 'brown bag' lunches with smaller group of students. The fair is a convenient way for companies to increase their visibility on campus, recruit talent, and to network with highly-motivated students and alumni.

Career treks provide you with the opportunity to network with students who are interested in learning about future employment opportunities. If you want to interview students without incurring travel costs, we can facilitate video interviewing.

Employers are often invited to work with clubs on their various events, allowing employers to target and network with a select group of students.

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