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Department of Kinesiology, Health, and Nutrition
It is thought that in developed countries, the wealthy are able to afford more nutritious food, they are under greater social pressure to remain slim, and have more opportunities along with greater expectations for physical fitness. Extenuating circumstances must be documented and will be considered on a case-by-case basis by the internship coordinator. For over years Jewish people lived under pagan, Christian, Muslim, etc. Internship Eligibility Kinesiology majors with no concentration are eligible to apply for an internship if they: This course includes laboratory and clinical measurements of aerobic capacity, balance, body composition, electrocardiography, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and pulmonary function.

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All candidates for the degree must complete the following degree requirements in addition to the Core Curriculum requirements. Students pursuing the B. The Bachelor of Science B. The degree requirements consist of the University Core Curriculum, major core requirements, elective courses in areas of specializations, a foreign language, and an internship. The major core is multidisciplinary introducing students to the fundamental subjects and the essential knowledge necessary for working in any field related to public health.

The elective courses allow students to concentrate in one of the areas of specialization. The degree program prepares students for health care related careers in government, private, and nonprofit organizations. In addition, graduates of this program will be competent in pursuing graduate studies in a variety of academic fields, including public health, allied health, public policy, nutrition, business, and law.

It can also provide students with a pathway to advanced studies in medicine or dentistry, if the students use the electives to fulfill the additional admission requirements for medical and dental schools. The degree program is offered in two concentrations: The minimum number of semester credit hours required for this degree, including Core Curriculum requirements, is Thirty-nine of the total semester credit hours required for the degree must be at the upper-division level.

All Public Health majors are expected to complete an internship 6 semester credit hours, hours of time on site. The courses listed below satisfy both degree requirements and Core Curriculum requirements; however, if these courses are taken to satisfy both requirements, then students may need to take additional courses in order to meet the minimum number of semester credit hours required for this degree.

All candidates for the B. This course sequence guide is designed to assist students in completing the requirements for their UTSA undergraduate Public Health degree with a concentration in Health Promotion and Behavioral Science. This is merely a guide and students must satisfy other requirements of this catalog and meet with their academic advisor for individualized degree plans. Progress within this guide depends upon such factors as course availability, individual student academic preparation, student time management, work obligations, and individual financial considerations.

Students may choose to take courses during Summer terms to reduce course loads during long semesters. The student will graduate with a baccalaureate degree in health or public health while earning a certificate in public health from UTHealth Houston SPH.

Additionally, they will have the opportunity to complete a Master of Public Health MPH degree program in one additional year instead of the customary two years. Graduates will be expected to acquire the education, skill-set and experience needed to enter the professional work force in any of the varied fields of public health, or be well prepared to continue with their education through doctoral studies or in professional degrees such as medicine, dentistry and pharmacy.

Students in good standing in the Bachelor of Science in Health or the Bachelor of Science in Public Health program who have a minimum cumulative grade point average of a 3. This coursework will simultaneously satisfy remaining undergraduate requirements, as well as the core courses for the Master of Public Health MPH degree. After satisfying the undergraduate degree requirements students will then apply for and finish the graduate program. Students may apply for admission into one of the concentrations within the Kinesiology major if they wish to specialize in athletic training, exercise physiology, kinesiology and health science, or physical education.

Students may also pursue the major without a concentration. This also applies to students who are unable to complete one of the concentrations.

Academic advising for students seeking the Kinesiology degree is available in the Life and Health Sciences Advising Center. Students who wish to pursue teacher certification will be advised in the Interdisciplinary Education Advising Center.

The minimum number of semester credit hours for this degree, including the Core Curriculum requirements, is , of which at least 39 must be at the upper-division level. Experiential learning is a valuable element for kinesiology professionals.

The internship is a time-limited, supervised period of kinesiology activities carried out in a kinesiology-oriented organization.

An internship is optional for the students in the Kinesiology major with no concentration. Students must have the background check completed and accepted by the internship site when the work plan for the internship site when the work plan for the internship is submitted. Students in the Kinesiology major are required to successfully complete all required KIN courses, and select elective courses based on their post-graduate goals.

Students become eligible to apply for the Texas state licensure upon completion of this concentration. Students must be accepted into the Athletic Training Apprenticeship Program to pursue this concentration. The apprenticeship program involves hours of clinical internship over a minimum of five semesters. All kinesiology degree core and support work must be completed with a grade of "C-" or better. The goal of admission requirements for the Athletic Training concentration is to provide undergraduate students with a program of study with the highest possible standards.

To achieve this goal, the admission policy is designed to identify those students most likely to succeed in athletic training. All applicants for admission to the Athletic Training concentration will be initially admitted to the Kinesiology program without a concentration. In order for a student to declare the Athletic Training concentration, a student must be admitted to the Athletic Training Apprenticeship Program, and meet the following academic criteria.

To declare an Athletic Training concentration, a Kinesiology major must have:. For a complete listing of courses that satisfy the Core Curriculum requirements, see Core Curriculum Component Area Requirements above. Students in the Athletic Training concentration are required to successfully complete all required HTH and KIN courses, and select designated elective courses based on their post-graduate goals. Students are trained for careers in exercise science.

To achieve this goal, the admission policy is designed to identify those students most likely to succeed in kinesiology education. Academic performance for declaration of the Exercise Physiology concentration will be evaluated after the following criteria has been met:.

Kinesiology majors with Exercise Physiology concentration are eligible to apply for an internship if they:. Prior work experience is defined as an experience that is at least equivalent to what students will earn in a hour internship. Both the length and quality of the experience will be evaluated. This concentration is suited for students who are taking prerequisite courses for medical schools or graduate programs in health professions e.

Students who are interested in applying to these programs are encouraged to meet with their academic advisor and consult with the UTSA Health Professions Office. The goal of admission requirements for the Kinesiology and Health Science concentration is to provide undergraduate students with a program of study with the highest possible standards.

All applicants for admission to the Kinesiology and Health Science concentration will be initially admitted to the Kinesiology program without a concentration. In order for a student to declare the Kinesiology and Health Science concentration must meet the following academic criteria. To declare an Kinesiology and Health Science concentration, a Kinesiology major must have:.

An internship is optional for the students in the Kinesiology major with a concentration in Kinesiology and Health Science. Students in the Kinesiology and Health Science concentration are required to successfully complete all required KIN courses, and select designated elective courses based on their post-graduate goals. Students are prepared for careers in teaching physical education pre-kindergarten—grade Academic advising for students seeking the Kinesiology degree is available in the Interdisciplinary Education Advising Center.

These courses require an advisor code and are restricted to students who have applied and been accepted into the Teacher Certification Program. All the courses listed for the Physical Education Concentration 84 hours are required for teacher certification in physical education. Only the courses marked with an asterisk are restricted and require an advisor code and acceptance into the Teacher Certification Program.

Advisor codes for these classes will be issued only if all prerequisites have been completed. Didactic and introductory supervised experiences are part of the curriculum and serve as a foundation for the Master of Dietetics Studies MDS. Students must meet all admission requirements to seek the dual B. Successful completion of both degrees certifies the student as eligible to take the national exam to become a Registered Dietitian RD.

Students admitted into the undergraduate program are not guaranteed placement into the MDS unless they maintain a 3. Students on the B. Some of the requirements are known to be a good predictor of achievement in the graduate professional phase of the Coordinated Program in Dietetics. Admission into the major as part of a cohort group occurs in the Fall Semester.

In order to declare a major in Nutrition and Dietetics, a student must meet the following criteria:. Transfer students must meet all the above criteria and meet all the UTSA undergraduate admission requirements.

Official transcripts from all institutions attended must be submitted. A criminal background check is required during the semesters in which a student enrolls in field-based practicums. Students will be required to complete a Criminal Record Check for practicums associated with schools, healthcare facilities, hospitals and clinics. It is the responsibility of the student to determine if his or her criminal history background will present a problem before applying for admission to the program.

Students with problematic criminal history will not be able to complete most of the field experiences that are required by the program. This course sequence guide is designed to assist students in completing their UTSA undergraduate degree requirements that are part of the Coordinated Program in Dietetics.

This is merely a guide and students must satisfy other admission requirements for the Coordinated Program in Dietetics; and meet with their advisor for individualized degree plans.

Students may choose to take core and support courses during Summer terms to reduce course loads during long semesters. Courses in the Nutrition and Dietetics Program are only offered once a year, according to the guide below. The practicum courses involve traveling off campus to affiliation sites.

Check the University Schedule of Classes or with the instructor to plan the rest of the course schedule accordingly. All students pursuing the Minor in Community Health must complete the following 18 semester credit hours:. All students pursuing the Minor in Wellness must complete the following 18 semester credit hours:. To declare a Minor in Community Health or Wellness or to obtain advice, students should consult their academic advisor. All students pursuing a Certificate in Athletic Coaching must complete the following 15 semester credit hours:.

This course is designed to provide teacher certification students with the opportunity to gain developmentally appropriate knowledge and skills in health and environmental safety. It will address health-related issues in personal, interpersonal, and community settings and creating a safe teaching environment.

Offered Spring Semester only. Introduction to Community and Public Health. This course is a survey of the profession of public health and the competencies required of health educators, including examination of philosophies, ethics and current trends. This course serves as a foundation for other courses in the health degree. Emphasizes the concept of mind, body, and spirit as necessary components of total well-being; principles of preventive health; and self-responsibility for personal health behaviors.

This course introduces students to practices and skills that are commonly used in community health and preventive health services. These include health screening skills and skills for communicating and interpreting screening results.

The course offers hands-on practice of these skills. Database Management in Community and Public Health. This course will focus on practical issues in database management. Students will learn how to perform basic query and reporting operations, migrate data between various file formats, share data using cloud data management systems such as Dropbox, prepare data for statistical analysis, conduct statistical analyses common in community and public health, perform data quality control and assurance procedures and develop formal documents for reporting outcomes.

Survey of Drugs and Health. Study of the use and abuse of drugs and other substances. Examines addiction, dependence, tolerance, motivation for use, and effects of substance abuse on health and society. Survey of Human Nutrition. An overview approach to understanding the principles of nutrition and their effect on health and fitness.

Emphasis on major nutritional issues throughout the human life cycle; self-evaluation of diet and fitness habits. Survey of Human Sexuality. A study examining the breadth of human sexuality, including psychosocial, cultural and physical aspects, and its impact on our lives. Principles of Weight Management. An in-depth study of the field of prevention and management of obesity. This course provides practical application of nutritional, psychological, and physical activity principles that help individuals manage their own weight and is suitable for students in health, kinesiology, psychology, biology, counseling, or others.

A noncompetitive, monitored activity component is required. Physical Activity and Health. The course provides a survey of the health-related effects and social-cultural and behavioral determinants of physical activity and exercise.

Theories of Health Behavior. Designed to provide an overview of health behavior theories, program planning models and multi-level interventions typically used in public health. Each level of the socio-ecological model will be discussed including individual, interpersonal, organization, community and policy. Directed field experience is required. Formerly titled "Foundations of Health Theory.

Study of community health problems and the function and organization of public, private, and voluntary health agencies, application of health theories and models and program planning methods. Offered Fall Semester only. Organization, administration, and supervision of health programs in the community, school, business, or industry setting. Application of health theories, models and program planning methods is required.

Application of theories and models for program development, implementation and evaluation. Health majors and minors only. Physical, social, and psychological development throughout the lifespan. Implications for health professionals at all stages of development prenatal to death are addressed. Practical application of techniques for shaping healthier emotional behavior; emphasis on personality, stress management, and fulfilling relationships.

Child and Adolescent Health Promotion. Designed for students who are interested in promoting the health of youth, as well as those students pursuing academic training in education and community health.

The primary goal of this course is to improve the health literacy of teachers and health promotion specialists through understanding and application of evidence-based child and adolescent health promotion concepts. Program Planning and Evaluation. This course provides students with a basic understanding of planning, implementing, and evaluating health promotion programs in a variety of settings, including worksite, healthcare, and community and at a various levels individual, organization, community, policy.

Human Disease and Epidemiology. An in-depth look at the etiology, prevention, and treatment of chronic and contagious diseases afflicting humans and epidemiological methods. An in-depth study of human sexuality, including psychosocial, cultural and physical aspects.

An in-depth examination of the principles of nutrition and their effects on health and fitness. Emphasis on critical thinking and translation of nutritional knowledge to real-world settings.

Includes self-evaluation of diet and fitness habits. Application of health theories and models for program development, implementation, and evaluation in nutritional context.

Environmental Health and Safety. Considers applicable factors of ecology, including problems related to water, waste, pesticides, foods, radiation, population, and other aspects of the total ecosystem, as well as personal and occupational safety within these parameters. Capstone for Community Health and Preventive Services.

This course aids students in synthesizing their classroom and internship experiences to reinforce critical skills and key responsibilities for Health Educators.

This course will provide students with an overview of resources, skills, and recommendations regarding their professional development. Student is required to have a cumulative grade point average of 2.

The opportunity for work experience in a private or public health-related agency. Opportunities are developed in consultation with the faculty advisor and on-site coordinator. Special Studies in Health. Organized course offering the opportunity for specialized study in an area of health not available as part of the regular course offerings. Enrollment limited to candidates for honors in the Department of Health and Kinesiology during the last two semesters; consent of the Honors College.

Supervised research and preparation of an honors thesis. Practice in the techniques of individual physical activities. Sections focus on particular sports or fitness activities as indicated in the Schedule of Classes.

Freshman Topics in Kinesiology. This course is designed to help students acquire the tools and life skills necessary to succeed in college and the future. The curriculum is an overview of topics including: Practice in the techniques of team sports. Sections focus on particular sports as indicated in the Schedule of Classes.

Generally offered Fall, Spring. Computer Applications in Kinesiology and Health. Application of computer and multimedia technology in Kinesiology and Health disciplines. Lifetime Fitness Activity Instruction. Practice in delivering instructions in lifetime fitness activities for adults.

These activities include cycling, hiking, jogging, golf, badminton and tennis. Fitness and Wellness Concepts. This course is designed to provide students with developmentally appropriate knowledge and skills in health and fitness. The course will address health-related issues in personal, interpersonal, and community settings. An individual fitness requirement may be required. This course examines the word roots, prefixes, suffixes and terms used in medicine and clinical exercise.

A major focus will be on the terms used in the major organ systems of the body, diseases, injuries, and medical treatments. First Aid and CPR. A study of basic first aid procedures, cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR , automated external defibrillation AED , and blood borne pathogens.

Upon successful completion of this course students will be able to sit for national certification in first aid and CPR. Study of the history and philosophy of physical activity, and an introduction to anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, motor behavior, and psychology of exercise and sport.

This course will also introduce careers in kinesiology and the requirements for graduation with a degree in kinesiology. Formerly titled "Cultural and Scientific Foundations of Kinesiology. Outdoor Activities and Innovative Games.

Practice in delivering instructions of selected outdoor activities hiking, orienteering, biking and innovative games for all age groups. Weekend class field trips required. Laboratory fee will be assessed. Formerly titled "Outdoor Activities and Lifetime Sports. Introduction to concepts and skills that will prepare the student to become an effective leader of physical fitness, sport and health, and physical education programs.

Skill Analysis in Physical Activity: Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected individual activities such as golf, bowling, archery, and track and field. This course will discuss the principles and philosophies of coaching sports. Domains will remain consistent with that of the National Standards for Sport Coaches and will focus on philosophy and ethics, safety and injury prevention, physical conditioning, growth and development, teaching and communication, sport skills and tactics, organization and administration, and evaluation.

Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected team sports, such as football, volleyball, and team handball. Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected dual sports, such as badminton, tennis and handball.

Practice in delivering a variety of appropriate aerobic, musculoskeletal fitness, and wellness activities for children and adults. Formerly titled "Aerobic Fitness Instruction.

Provide instruction in facilitating the foundational movement skills which provide the basis for all movement capacities and their application in specialized activities geared to the early childhood through adolescent stages. Formerly titled "Rhythmical Activities and Dance. Instructional techniques applied to health related fitness using resistance training, balance, flexibility, and musculoskeletal conditioning activities. A study of motor, physical, and neuromuscular development across the human life span.

Effects of social, cognitive, growth and maturation, and aging factors on motor development will be addressed. Directed field experience may be required. Scientific Principles of Physical Activity.

A study of the physiological and biomechanical principles of physical activity and human movement. Emphasis is placed on acute responses and chronic adaptations of the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems to physical activity. Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries. Prevention and care of athletic injuries.

A study of training and conditioning for the team and individual. Techniques and procedures for emergencies: Organization of the training room facility.

Formerly titled "Athletic Injuries and Training Procedures. Anatomy and Physiology for Kinesiology. A detailed study of anatomy and physiology of the human cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal and nervous systems. Emphasis will be placed on the anatomical factors that cause human movement and application to common exercise-related injuries. Anatomy laboratory hours may be required. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of human movement through analysis of video and biomechanical data.

Application of Biomechanics to sports performance enhancement and injury prevention. The study of the human body in sports motion and sport objects in motion. The application of mechanical principles, kinematics, and kinetics. Biomechanics laboratory hours are required. Development, organization, and delivery of appropriate physical activities for children through the adolescent stage.

Some fieldwork observation experiences may be required. Laboratory exercises demonstrating principles of exercise physiology. Topics include metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular responses to physical activity and exercise. A study of the adaptation and effects of the body to physiological stress. Emphasis will be placed on the physiology of training, metabolism and work capacity, and electrocardiography.

Health Related Fitness Assessment Laboratory. This course includes laboratory and clinical measurements of aerobic capacity, balance, body composition, electrocardiography, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and pulmonary function. Students are required to demonstrate competence in administering health related physical fitness. Health Related Fitness Assessment. A study of the principles and concepts of fitness measurement. Topics include graded exercise testing, electrocardiography, assessment of aerobic capacity, body composition, flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and pulmonary function.

Fitness Programming and Exercise Prescription. A study and application of principles and concepts related to designing exercise programs. The target population includes apparently healthy adults and individuals with special considerations, including cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy, and children.

A detailed examination of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems. This course focuses on bones. The etiology and pathophysiology of common sport and exercise related injuries to the musculoskeleton will be introduced.

Laboratory examination of the skeletal system may be required. An investigation of psychological processes and behaviors related to participation in exercise and physical activities. Psychological effects of exercise, motives for fitness, exercise adherence, and fitness counseling. This course is designed to introduce students to a variety of therapeutic modalities currently used in clinical rehabilitation.

Application of test, measurement, and evaluation theory. Emphasis is on proper selection and administration of tests, appropriate evaluation of test results using basic statistical procedures, and assignment of grades. Introduction to Sport Psychology. Joel Spring has written about the Christianization of the Roman Empire:. Christianity added new impetus to the expansion of empire.

Increasing the arrogance of the imperial project, Christians insisted that the Gospels and the Church were the only valid sources of religious beliefs. Imperialists could claim that they were both civilizing the world and spreading the true religion. By the 5th century, Christianity was thought of as co-extensive with the Imperium romanum. This meant that to be human, as opposed to being a natural slave, was to be "civilized" and Christian. Conversion to Islam is simple, but Muslims are forbidden to convert from Islam to another religion.

Certain Muslim-majority countries are known for their restrictions on religious freedom, highly favoring Muslim citizens over non-Muslim citizens. Other countries [ who? Even other Muslim-majority countries are secular and thus do not regulate religious belief. Thus, this supports the argument against the execution of apostates in Islam. However, on the other hand, some Muslims support the practice of executing apostates who leave Islam, as in Bukhari: In Iran, the constitution recognizes four religions whose status is formally protected: Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Among the most contentious areas of religious freedom is the right of an individual to change or abandon his or her own religion apostasy , and the right to evangelize individuals seeking to convince others to make such a change. Other debates have centered around restricting certain kinds of missionary activity by religions.

Many Islamic states, and others such as China, severely restrict missionary activities of other religions. Greece, among European countries, has generally looked unfavorably on missionary activities of denominations others than the majority church and proselytizing is constitutionally prohibited. A different kind of critique of the freedom to propagate religion has come from non-Abrahamic traditions such as the African and Indian. African scholar Makau Mutua criticizes religious evangelism on the ground of cultural annihilation by what he calls "proselytizing universalist faiths" Chapter Proselytism and Cultural Integrity, p.

Some Indian scholars [93] have similarly argued that the right to propagate religion is not culturally or religiously neutral. In Sri Lanka, there have been debates regarding a bill on religious freedom that seeks to protect indigenous religious traditions from certain kinds of missionary activities.

Debates have also occurred in various states of India regarding similar laws, particularly those that restrict conversions using force, fraud or allurement. In , Christian Solidarity Worldwide , a Christian human rights non-governmental organisation which specializes in religious freedom, launched an in-depth report on the human rights abuses faced by individuals who leave Islam for another religion. The report is the product of a year long research project in six different countries.

It calls on Muslim nations, the international community, the UN and the international media to resolutely address the serious violations of human rights suffered by apostates. In Islam, apostasy is called " ridda " "turning back" and is considered to be a profound insult to God. A person born of Muslim parents that rejects Islam is called a " murtad fitri " natural apostate , and a person that converted to Islam and later rejects the religion is called a " murtad milli " apostate from the community.

In Islamic law Sharia , the consensus view is that a male apostate must be put to death unless he suffers from a mental disorder or converted under duress, for example, due to an imminent danger of being killed. A female apostate must be either executed, according to Shafi'i , Maliki , and Hanbali schools of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence fiqh , or imprisoned until she reverts to Islam as advocated by the Sunni Hanafi school and by Shi'a scholars.

Ideally, the one performing the execution of an apostate must be an imam. However, while almost all scholars agree about the punishment, many disagree on the allowable time to retract the apostasy. Rahman, a former Chief Justice of Pakistan, argues that there is no indication of the death penalty for apostasy in the Qur'an. Religious practice may also conflict with secular law, creating debates on religious freedom.

For instance, even though polygamy is permitted in Islam, it is prohibited in secular law in many countries. This raises the question of whether prohibiting the practice infringes on the beliefs of certain Muslims. The US and India, both constitutionally secular nations, have taken two different views of this.

In the US, polygamy is prohibited for all. This was a major source of conflict between the early LDS Church and the United States until the Church amended its position on practicing polygamy. Similar issues have also arisen in the context of the religious use of psychedelic substances by Native American tribes in the United States as well as other Native practices.

Traynor neatly summarized the American position on how freedom of religion cannot imply freedom from law: City of Hialeah in upheld the right of Santeria adherents to practice ritual animal sacrifice , with Justice Anthony Kennedy stating in the decision: Hodges legalizing Same-sex marriage in the United States.

When she refused to issue marriage licenses, she became embroiled in the Miller v. Her actions caused attorney and author Roberta Kaplan to state that "Kim Davis is the clearest example of someone who wants to use a religious liberty argument to discriminate.

In , the case of Engele v. Vitale went to court over the violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment resulting from a mandatory nondenominational prayer in New York public schools.

The Supreme Court ruled in opposition to the state. Edward Schempp sued the school district in Abington over the Pennsylvania law which required students to hear and sometimes read portions of the bible for their daily education. The court ruled in favor of Schempp and the Pennsylvania law was overturned. In , the Supreme Court ruled on the case of Epperson v. Susan Epperson, a high school teacher in Arkansas sued over a violation of religious freedom. The state had a law banning the teaching of evolution and the school Epperson worked for had provided curriculum which contained evolutionary theory.

Epperson had to choose between violating the law or losing her job. The Supreme Court ruled to overturn the Arkansas law because it was unconstitutional. The law in Germany provides the term of "religious majority" Religiöse Mündigkeit with a minimum age for minors to follow their own religious beliefs even if their parents don't share those or don't approve. Children 14 and older have the unrestricted right to enter or exit any religious community. Children 12 and older cannot be compelled to change to a different belief.

Children 10 and older have to be heard before their parents change their religious upbringing to a different belief. In its annual report, the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom designated fourteen nations as "countries of particular concern".

The commission chairman commented that these are nations whose conduct marks them as the world's worst religious freedom violators and human rights abusers. There are concerns about the restrictions on public religious dress in some European countries including the Hijab , Kippah , and Christian cross.

The Pew Research Center has performed studies on international religious freedom between and , compiling global data from 16 governmental and non-governmental organizations—including the United Nations, the United States State Department , and Human Rights Watch —and representing over Social hostilities were classified by the level of communal violence and religion-related terrorism.

While most countries provided for the protection of religious freedom in their constitutions or laws, only a quarter of those countries were found to fully respect these legal rights in practice.

In 75 countries governments limit the efforts of religious groups to proselytise and in countries religious groups must register with the government. The countries in North and South America reportedly had some of the lowest levels of government and social restrictions on religion, while The Middle East and North Africa were the regions with the highest.

Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Iran were the countries that top the list of countries with the overall highest levels of restriction on religion. Vietnam and China were classified as having high government restrictions on religion but were in the moderate or low range when it came to social hostilities. Nigeria, Bangladesh and India were high in social hostilities but moderate in terms of government actions.

Restrictions on religion across the world increased between mid and mid, according to a study by the Pew Research Center. Restrictions in each of the five major regions of the world increased—including in the Americas and sub-Saharan Africa, the two regions where overall restrictions previously had been declining. In , Egypt, Nigeria, the Palestinian territories, Russia, and Yemen were added to the "very high" category of social hostilities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the painting, see Freedom to Worship painting. For exemptions to anti-discrimination policy often known as "religious liberty" or "conscience protection", see Religious freedom bill. Religious discrimination Separation of church and state. This section possibly contains inappropriate or misinterpreted citations that do not verify the text. Please help improve this article by checking for citation inaccuracies. September Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Freedom of religion in India. King John Sigismund [33]. Freedom of religion in the United States. Freedom of religion in Canada. Apostasy in Islam , Takfir , and Mutaween. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Human rights portal Religion portal.

Archived from the original on 1 February Retrieved 5 December Retrieved 3 September Ray Clendenen 15 October Fulani Hegemony in Yola Old Adamawa Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World.

Oxford University Press , , p. The only privilege that was reserved for the Muslims was the seat of the caliphate, and this, because of certain religious functions attached to it, which could not naturally be discharged by a non-Muslim. The Qur'an and Other Religions , p. Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. According the dhimma status system, non-Muslims must pay a poll tax in return for Muslim protection and the privilege of living in Muslim territory.

Per this system, non-Muslims are exempt from military service, but they are excluded from occupying high positions that involve dealing with high state interests, like being the president or prime minister of the country. In Islamic history, non-Muslims did occupy high positions, especially in matters that related to fiscal policies or tax collection. The Islamic Roots of Democratic Pluralism.

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Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 3 March Archived from the original PDF on 23 July Letters on the English". The Case for Jewish Peoplehood: Can We be One? The 'hood' is not only a geographic reference; it is a shared identity that may be characterized by joint assumptions, body language, certain expressions, and a host of familial-like behaviors that unite an otherwise dispirate groupe of people. Global restrictions on Religion " http: Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original on 11 February Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief.

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