This may be mitigated to some extent if they are wholegrain and contain more fibre. Vinegar is also acidic, which may add to one's level of stomach acid if insufficient or result in excess acid consumption in those with enough stomach acid. Each filament contains a capillary network that provides a large surface area for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide. This is especially important for those with already impaired digestion and poor stomach acid and enzyme levels. Call Archived from the original on 18 May
How Do I Know if I Have Gallstones?
Argulus has a direct life cycle, meaning it only requires one host the fish to completely develop from an egg to a mature, reproducing adult. All crustaceans, including Argulus , develop and grow through a complex series of molts i.
Unlike copepods—another group of crustacean fish parasites, such as Lernaea the Anchorworm branchiurans continue to molt periodically even after reaching maturity. Some chemical control methods see Diagnosis and Management kill the parasite by inhibiting the molting process. While the branchiuran life cycle averages 30 to 60 days, the actual duration depends on the parasite species and the water temperature. All life stages of both sexes are parasitic—unlike the non- parasitic male Anchorworm Lernaea , Argulus adults can survive for several days off the fish host.
After she releases her eggs, the female returns to the fish host. The time required for Argulus eggs to hatch will vary, depending upon the species and temperature.
If laid in the fall, eggs are capable of over wintering surviving until the following spring. Disease in Fish Caused by Argulus: Argulus infestations tend to peak in the summer and fall. The lice can be found attached to the skin, gill chamber, and mouth. Localized inflammation occurs at the contact site because of mechanical damage from hooks and spines on the stylet and appendages, and irritation from digestive enzymes.
In heavy infestations, the fish lice may be seen all over the skin and fins of the fish and in the water column Figures 3 and 4. Fish without visible lice may show non- specific signs of infestation. These include spot or pinpoint hemorrhages, anemia, fin and scale loss, increased mucus production, lethargy, erratic swimming, reduced feeding, hanging at the surface avoiding swimming into the water column and poor body condition.
In some cases, there may be no obvious signs of disease other than presence of the parasite. Individual adult and late stage juvenile Argulus are easily seen with the unaided eye. Note readily visible oval parasites in throat ventral area of head, as well as others scattered throughout the body.
Although fish may tolerate low and even moderate levels of Argulus with very few signs of disease, localized inflammation and damage at the affected site may lead to secondary infections.
Secondary pathogens, such as the bacteria Aeromonas and the water mold Saprolegnia , are often seen concurrently with Argulus infestations.
Argulus is also capable of acting as a mechanical vector or intermediate host for several fish diseases. The parasite can carry and transmit spring viremia of carp, a reportable viral disease of Koi, common carp, and goldfish, among other hosts.
Aeromonas salmonicida , an important bacterial pathogen, has been isolated from Argulus coregoni, and experiments demonstrated higher rates of Aeromonas infection when Argulus are present, but direct transmission from louse to fish has not yet been proven. Argulus can also serve as the intermediate host for several species of nematodes roundworms. Because of their size, older stages of Argulus can be diagnosed with the naked eye. The parasites are visible moving on the host or swimming in the water.
The parasite can also be identified on a wet mount of the affected tissue. Captured fish should be examined quickly because Argulus may rapidly leave the fish once it is disturbed or removed from the water.
Filtering water from the system through a fine mesh net may also help capture free- swimming Argulus adults or juveniles for identification. Adults and juvenile stages which are similar to adults but lack suckers are relatively easy to identify, but their identification should be verified by a fish health professional. Drug choice and length of treatment for Argulus infections should take into consideration the life cycle of the parasite, which varies from 30 to 60 days depending on temperature and species.
Treatment should target all life stages, including eggs, juveniles, and adults, both on the fish and in the environment. Adult parasites can be manually removed from the affected fish, but this is impractical in many situations and is an incomplete solution because eggs, unattached juveniles, and adults will still be present in the environment.
Fish can be moved to a clean tank and treated with the appropriate drugs, while eggs in the original system are eliminated either by cleaning and disinfecting the tank or allowing it to dry completely. However, drying may be difficult in humid areas, and at cooler temperatures eggs can survive much longer time periods.
Optimal water quality should be maintained for the duration of any treatments. It is best to work with a fish health specialist. Stone removal can be done during this procedure as well. The procedure takes about an hour.
In most cases, treatment of gallstones is considered necessary only if you are having symptoms. Of the various conventional treatments that are available, surgical removal of the gallbladder is the most widely used.
Some alternative treatments have also been found to be effective in alleviating the symptoms of troublesome gallstones. When deciding what course of action to take for symptomatic gallstones, doctors usually choose from among three main treatment options: Watchful waiting, nonsurgical therapy, and surgical removal of the gallbladder.
Though a gallstone episode can be extremely painful or frightening, almost a third to half of all people who experience an attack never have a recurrence. In some cases, the stone dissolves or becomes dislodged and thereby resumes its "silence. Even when the patient has had repeated gallstone episodes, the doctor may postpone treatment or surgery because of other health concerns. If your surgery has been delayed, you should remain under a doctor's care and report any recurrences of gallstone symptoms immediately.
If you are unable or unwilling to go through surgery for a gallstone problem that requires treatment, your doctor may recommend one of several noninvasive techniques. Note that though these methods may destroy symptom-causing gallstones, they can do nothing to prevent others from forming, and recurrence is common.
Some gallstones can be dissolved through the use of a bile salt, although the procedure can be used only with stones formed from cholesterol and not from bile pigments. The drug Actigall ursodiol is taken as a tablet; depending on its size, the gallstone may take months or even years to go away. Because some stones are calcified, this treatment often doesn't work. Another nonsurgical technique, shock wave therapy, uses high-frequency sound waves to fragment the stones.
Bile salt is administered afterward to dissolve small pieces. This therapy is rarely used. Doctors can also attempt to remove gallstones during an ERCP.
During the procedure an instrument is inserted through the endoscope to attempt removal of the stone. While these therapies may work for some, all of the above nonsurgical therapies are usually unsuccessful long term since recurrence is common and are rarely advised in clinical practice. While the gallbladder serves an important function, it is not essential for a normal, healthy life. When gallstones are persistently troublesome, doctors often recommend removing the organ entirely.
This operation is considered among the safest of all surgical procedures. Each year approximately , Americans have their gallbladder removed.