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States are allowed under federal law to administer SNAP in different ways. Orange stamps were good for any grocery item the purchaser chose, except drugs, liquor and items consumed on the premises. Pathways from food insecurity to malnutrition Poor access to food and particularly healthy food contributes to undernutrition as well as overweight and obesity. The number of hungry people is on the rise. Blue stamps bought only surplus foods—dairy products, eggs, citrus fruits, prunes and fresh vegetables. Free Ancestry Searches - Click Here. Scholarly databases and Scholarly search services.

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Nursing , Allied Health. Database of 15 million articles in the Japanese language from journals. National Institute of Informatics [37]. Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database. University of Calgary [38]. Mathematics , Computer science , Physics. University of Southampton [39]. Pennsylvania State University [40]. Computer science , Statistics , Mathematics , becoming Multidisciplinary.

Pennsylvania State University [41]. University of Southampton [42]. The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies. Current Index to Statistics. Limited free search [45]. Part of Web of Science. Contains 7 discipline-specific subsets. Extensive research database including publications, grants, patents, and clinical trials. Dimensions is a collaborative project of six Digital Science portfolio companies: Directory of Open Access Journals. EconBiz supports research in and teaching of economics with a central entry point for all kinds of subject-specific information and direct access to full texts.

The American Economic Association's electronic database, the world's foremost source of references to economic literature. Produced by the American Economic Association. Educational Resource Information Center. Education literature and resources. Provides access to over 1. Produced by the United States Department of Education.

A database of biomedical and life sciences literature with access to full-text research articles and citations. A partner in PMC International. Food science , Food technology , Nutrition. Descriptions of women's history collections from sources in the UK, as well as women's history websites.

London Metropolitan University [64]. Specialist bibliographic, abstracting and indexing database dedicated to public health research and practice. Free online search; offline use by subscription. Golm Metabolome Database [66]. An alternative interface to the PubMed medical literature database. Computer Science , Engineering , Electronics. Scientific journal database — the IC Journal Master List — contains currently over 2, journals from all over the world, including journals from Poland.

The journals registered in this database underwent rigorous, multidimensional parameterization, proving high quality. Index Copernicus International [73].

Department of Energy Scientific and Technical Information. DOE Scientific and Technical Information provides free public access to over , full-text documents and bibliographic citations of Department of Energy DOE research report literature. Legacy documents are added as they become available in electronic format.

Free searching; Subscription full-text. Indian Citation Index ICI is a home grown abstracts and citation database, with multidisciplinary objective knowledge contents from about top Indian scholarly journals. It provides powerful search engine to fulfill search and evaluation purposes for researchers, policy makers, decision makers etc. The site provides tools to build graphic reports. Physics , Engineering , Computer Science.

The leading bibliographic database providing abstracts and indexing to the world's scientific and technical papers in physics, electrical engineering, electronics, communications, control engineering, computing, information technology, manufacturing, production, and mechanical engineering.

Physics , High Energy. International Directory of Philosophy. Contains information on university philosophy departments and programs, philosophical societies, research centers, journals, and philosophy publishers in the U. Free search; full access by subscription. Philosophy Documentation Center [82].

Open access journals in different language. Links to journal's home page and publishers. Also, early journals prior to in US, elsewhere free, no registry necessary. Jurn is a free-to-use online search tool for finding and downloading free full-text scholarly works.

In Jurn expanded beyond open access journals in the arts and humanities, to also index open journals in ecology, science, biomedical, business and economics. Jurn is actively curated and maintained. Over , teacher-reviewed classroom resources including lesson plans, worksheets, educational videos, and education articles.

Free Abstract; Subscription full-text. A free archive of linguistics articles, with a focus on syntax, semantics, phonology and morphology. Available in print as Mathematical Reviews. American Mathematical Society [89]. The Mendeley research catalog is a crowdsourced database of research documents.

Researchers have uploaded nearly M documents into the catalog with additional contributions coming directly from subject repositories like Pubmed Central and Arxiv. Chemistry , Biology , Pharmacology. In Maine, incidents of recycling fraud have occurred in the past where individuals once committed fraud by using their EBT cards to buy canned or bottled beverages requiring a deposit to be paid at the point of purchase for each beverage container , dump the contents out so the empty beverage container could be returned for deposit redemption, and thereby, allowed these individuals to eventually purchase non-EBT authorized products with cash from the beverage container deposits.

The State of Utah developed a system called "eFind" to monitor, evaluate and cross-examine qualifying and reporting data of recipients assets. Utah's eFind system is a "back end", web-based system that gathers, filters, and organizes information from various federal, state, and local databases. This system was developed with federal funds and it is available to other states free of charge.

HIP is designed to take place from August to April with the actual operation phase of the pilot program scheduled to last 15 months, from November to January Periodically, proposals have been raised to restrict SNAP benefits from being used to purchase various categories or types of food which have been criticized as "junk food" or "luxury items".

However, Congress and the Department of Agriculture have repeatedly rejected such proposals on both administrative burden and personal freedom grounds. The Food and Nutrition Service noted in that no federal standards exist to determine which foods should be considered "healthy" or not, that "vegetables, fruits, grain products, meat and meat alternatives account for nearly three-quarters of the money value of food used by food stamp households" and that "food stamp recipients are no more likely to consume soft drinks than are higher-income individuals, and are less likely to consume sweets and salty snacks.

They also noted that many urban food stores do a poor job of stocking healthy foods and instead favor high-profit processed items. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

An effort to manage agricultural surpluses , the first food stamps came off the presses April 20, Orange stamps were good for any grocery item the purchaser chose, except drugs, liquor and items consumed on the premises.

Blue stamps bought only surplus foods—dairy products, eggs, citrus fruits, prunes and fresh vegetables. Department of Agriculture official website , March 3, last revised. Accessed March 4, April 1, to July 1, Report. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 15 December United States department of Agriculture. Retrieved 16 August Retrieved 5 January Dole Institute of Politics. Retrieved 30 October Brookings Institution, , p.

United States Department of Agriculture. To provide for the continuation of agricultural and other programs of the Department of Agriculture through fiscal year , and for other purposes. Library of Congress , undated. Accessed May 20, Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 5 May An Analysis of the Housing and Vacancy Survey". Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved April 20, Retrieved 2 December Economists consider SNAP one of the most effective forms of economic stimulus.

Similarly, CBO rated an increase in SNAP benefits as one of the two most cost-effective of all spending and tax options it examined for boosting growth and jobs in a weak economy. Center for Budget and Policy Priorititys. Retrieved 12 August Fiscal Year " PDF. Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 18 September Food Policy in the US.

Untangling the Self-Selection Effect". Economic Research Report No. Archived from the original on Assessing Federal Food Aid.

AEI Press, p. Archived from the original PDF on 22 June Retrieved 14 December Obama Ag Secretary Vilsack: Food Stamps Are A "Stimulus.

Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Retailers Brace for Reduction in Food Stamps". More Americans selling their food stamps for cash". Detroit-area stores swipe millions from aid program". Department of Agriculture website". Agencies under the United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service Office of Environmental Markets.

Food Safety and Inspection Service. Contemporary social welfare programs in the United States. Section 8 housing Office of Public and Indian Housing. California New York Puerto Rico. Retrieved from " https: Webarchive template wayback links Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Congressional Research Service All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles with unsourced statements from January Articles containing potentially dated statements from All articles containing potentially dated statements Wikipedia articles incorporating text from public domain works of the United States Government.

Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 12 August , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Kusilvak Census Area, Alaska. Oglala Lakota County, South Dakota. Todd County, South Dakota. Sioux County, North Dakota.

East Carroll Parish, Louisiana. Rolette County, North Dakota. World Health Organization [online]. Global Health Observatory data repository. An analysis from indicated that deaths or Since , the global proportion of overweight children remains relatively stagnant, with 5. Adult obesity, on the other hand, is worsening. Adult obesity rates continue to rise each year, from This means that in more than one in eight adults, or more than million, in the world is obese.

The prevalence of obesity among adults in the world has been increasing steadily between and — and at an accelerated pace over the past decade. Adult obesity is highest in Northern America and the rate of increase in adult obesity is also the highest there. While Africa and Asia continue to have the lowest rates of obesity, an increasing trend can also be observed. As mentioned before, levels of childhood stunting and wasting persist across regions and countries; yet, simultaneously, there has been an increase in overweight and obesity, often in the same countries and communities with relatively high levels of child stunting.

Iron deficiency anaemia in women of reproductive age is one form of micronutrient deficiency. A large proportion of the world population is also affected by micronutrient vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Many countries have a high prevalence of more than one form of malnutrition. This multiple burden of malnutrition is more prevalent in low-, lower-middle and middle-income countries and concentrated among the poor.

Obesity in high-income countries is similarly concentrated among the poor. The coexistence of multiple forms of malnutrition can occur not only within countries and communities, but also within households — and can even affect the same person over their lifetime.

Poor access to food and particularly healthy food contributes to undernutrition as well as overweight and obesity. It increases the risk of low birthweight, childhood stunting and anaemia in women of reproductive age, and it is linked to overweight in school-age girls and obesity among women, particularly in upper-middle- and high-income countries.

There are several pathways from inadequate food access to multiple forms of malnutrition. Figure 14 illustrates two pathways: Food insecurity unreliable access to food can contribute to child wasting, stunting and micronutrient deficiencies by negatively affecting the adequacy of food consumption. A diet characterized by insufficient intake of calories, protein, vitamins and minerals will impede foetal, infant and child growth and development. Such diets contribute to maternal undernutrition and consequently to higher risk of low birthweight, which in turn are both risk factors for child stunting.

The stress of living with food insecurity can also have a negative effect on the nutrition of infants by compromising breastfeeding. Although it may appear to be a paradox, food insecurity can also contribute to overweight and obesity. Nutritious, fresh foods often tend to be expensive. Thus, when household resources for food become scarce, people choose less expensive foods that are often high in calories and low in nutrients.

This is particularly true in urban settings and upper-middle and high-income countries, although the negative effect of food insecurity on diet quality has been documented in low-, middle- and high-income countries alike. There are also psychosocial factors that link food insecurity to obesity. The experience of not having certain or adequate access to food often causes feelings of anxiety, stress and depression, which in turn can lead to behaviours that increase the risk of overweight and obesity.

Such foods have been found to have physiological effects that reduce stress in the short term. Disordered eating patterns and food deprivation are another component linking food insecurity to malnutrition.

Maternal undernutrition — as well as overweight— caused by lack of stable access to adequate diets can cause metabolic, physiological and neuroendocrine changes in children, fueling intergenerational cycle of malnutrition. The coexistence of multiple forms of malnutrition means that the two pathways described above do not work in isolation but rather impact each other.

In this way, the undernutrition linked with food security might at the same time be linked with overweight and obesity. As described, food insecurity is associated with low birthweight in infants. Low birthweight is a risk factor for child stunting, which in turn is associated with overweight and obesity later in life. There is a need to implement and scale up interventions aimed at guaranteeing access to nutritious foods and breaking the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition.

Exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months and adequate complementary foods and feeding practices up to two years of age are key to ensuring normal child growth and development during this crucial window of opportunity. Access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food must be framed as a human right, with priority given to the most vulnerable. Policies must pay special attention to the food security and nutrition of children under five, school-age children, adolescent girls and women in order to halt the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition.

A shift is needed towards nutrition-sensitive agriculture and food systems that provide safe and high quality food, promoting healthy diets for all. Last year SOFI pinpointed conflict and violence in several parts of the world as one of the main drivers of hunger and food insecurity, suggesting that efforts to fight hunger must go hand-in-hand with those to sustain peace.

They are also one of the leading causes of severe food crises. The number of extreme climate-related disasters, including extreme heat, droughts, floods and storms, has doubled since the early s.

The number of extreme climate-related disasters, including extreme heat, droughts, floods and storms, has doubled since the early s, with an average of of these events occurring every year during the period of — Total number of natural disasters that occurred in low- and middle-income countries by region and during the period — Disasters are defined as medium and large scale disasters that exceed the thresholds set for registration on the EM-DAT international disaster database.

Climate variability and extremes are already negatively undermining production of major crops in tropical regions and, without adaptation, this is expected to worsen as temperatures increase and become more extreme. In many areas, climate extremes have increased in number and intensity, particularly where average temperatures are shifting upwards: Extreme heat is associated with increased mortality, lower labour capacity, lower crop yields and other consequences that undermine food security and nutrition.

In addition to increasing temperatures and changes in rainfall, the nature of rainy seasons is also changing, specifically the timing of seasonal climate events. Within-season changes may not register as extreme climate events droughts, floods or storms but rather are aspects of climate variability that affect the growth of crops and the availability of pasture for livestock, with potentially significant implications for food security and nutrition.

Several countries — notably in Africa, Central America and Southeast Asia — experienced drought, not only through abnormally low total accumulated rainfall, but also through lower rainfall intensities and fewer days of rainfall.

Food security and nutrition indicators can clearly be associated with an extreme climate event, such as a severe drought, that critically challenges agriculture and food production. Of all natural hazards, floods, droughts and tropical storms affect food production the most.

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